Diagnosis

During regular dental exams, your dentist likely will check for signs of bruxism.

Evaluation

If you have any signs, your dentist looks for changes in your teeth and mouth over the next several visits to see if the process is progressive and to determine whether you need treatment.

Determining the cause

If your dentist suspects that you have bruxism, he or she tries to determine its cause by asking questions about your general dental health, medications, daily routines and sleep habits.

To evaluate the extent of bruxism, your dentist may check for:

  • Tenderness in your jaw muscles
  • Obvious dental abnormalities, such as broken or missing teeth
  • Other damage to your teeth, the underlying bone and the inside of your cheeks, usually with the help of X-rays

A dental exam may detect other disorders that can cause similar jaw or ear pain, such as temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders, other dental problems or health conditions.

Referral

If your bruxism seems to be related to major sleep issues, your doctor may recommend a sleep medicine specialist. A sleep medicine specialist can conduct more tests, such as a sleep study that will assess for episodes of teeth grinding and determine if you have sleep apnea or other sleep disorders.

If anxiety or other psychological issues seem related to your teeth grinding, you may be referred to a licensed therapist or counselor.

Treatment

In many cases, treatment isn't necessary. Many kids outgrow bruxism without treatment, and many adults don't grind or clench their teeth badly enough to require therapy. However, if the problem is severe, options include certain dental approaches, therapies and medications to prevent more tooth damage and relieve jaw pain or discomfort.

Talk with your dentist or doctor to find out which option may work best for you.

Dental approaches

If you or your child has bruxism, your doctor may suggest ways to preserve or improve your teeth. Although these methods may prevent or correct the wear to your teeth, they may not stop the bruxism:

  • Splints and mouth guards. These are designed to keep teeth separated to avoid the damage caused by clenching and grinding. They can be constructed of hard acrylic or soft materials and fit over your upper or lower teeth.
  • Dental correction. In severe cases — when tooth wear has led to sensitivity or the inability to chew properly — your dentist may need to reshape the chewing surfaces of your teeth or use crowns to repair the damage.

Other approaches

One or more of these approaches may help relieve bruxism:

  • Stress or anxiety management. If you grind your teeth because of stress, you may be able to prevent the problem by learning strategies that promote relaxation, such as meditation. If the bruxism is related to anxiety, advice from a licensed therapist or counselor may help.
  • Behavior change. Once you discover that you have bruxism, you may be able to change the behavior by practicing proper mouth and jaw position. Ask your dentist to show you the best position for your mouth and jaw.
  • Biofeedback. If you're having a hard time changing your habits, you may benefit from biofeedback, a method that uses monitoring procedures and equipment to teach you to control muscle activity in your jaw.

Medications

In general, medications aren't very effective for treatment of bruxism, and more research is needed to determine their effectiveness. Examples of medications that may be used for bruxism include:

  • Muscle relaxants. In some cases, your doctor may suggest taking a muscle relaxant before bedtime, for a short period of time.
  • Botox injections. Injections of Botox, a form of botulinum toxin, may help some people with severe bruxism who don't respond to other treatments.
  • Medication for anxiety or stress. Your doctor may recommend short-term use of antidepressants or anti-anxiety medications to help you deal with stress or other emotional issues that may be causing your bruxism.

Treating associated disorders

Treatment for associated disorders may include:

  • Medications. If you develop bruxism as a side effect of a drug, your doctor may change your medication or prescribe a different one.
  • Sleep-related disorders. Addressing sleep-related disorders such as sleep apnea may improve sleep bruxism.
  • Medical conditions. If an underlying medical condition, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is identified as the cause, treating this condition may improve bruxism.

Lifestyle and home remedies

These self-care steps may prevent or help treat bruxism:

  • Reduce stress. Listening to music, taking a warm bath or exercising can help you relax and may reduce your risk of developing bruxism.
  • Avoid stimulating substances in the evening. Don't drink caffeinated coffee or caffeinated tea after dinner and avoid alcohol during the evening, as they may worsen bruxism.
  • Practice good sleep habits. Getting a good night's sleep, which may include treatment for sleep problems, may help reduce bruxism.
  • Talk to your sleep partner. If you have a sleeping partner, ask him or her to be aware of any grinding or clicking sounds that you might make while sleeping so you can report this to your dentist or doctor.
  • Schedule regular dental exams. Dental exams are the best way to identify bruxism. Your dentist can spot signs of bruxism in your mouth and jaw during regular visits and exams.

Preparing for your appointment

You may start by seeing your dentist or your primary care doctor. In some cases when you call to set up an appointment, you may be referred to a sleep medicine specialist.

What you can do

Prepare for your appointment by making a list of:

  • Relevant medical history, for instance, past bruxism-related problems and information on any medical conditions.
  • Any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for the appointment. If you experience pain, make a note of when it occurs, such as when you wake up or at the end of the day.
  • Key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes.
  • All medications, including over-the-counter medications, vitamins, herbs or other supplements, you're taking and the dosages. Let your doctor know about anything you've taken to help you sleep.
  • Questions to ask your dentist or doctor.

Basic questions to ask your doctor may include:

  • What's likely causing my symptoms?
  • Are there other possible causes?
  • What kinds of tests do I need?
  • Is my condition likely temporary or long term?
  • What's the best treatment?
  • What are the alternatives to the primary approach you're suggesting?
  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?
  • Should I see a specialist?
  • Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you're prescribing?
  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can have? What websites do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions during your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Be ready to answer questions from your doctor so that you can spend time on areas you want to focus on. Some questions your doctor may ask include:

  • When did you first begin experiencing symptoms?
  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?
  • How severe are your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, seems to worsen your symptoms?
Aug. 10, 2017
References
  1. AskMayoExpert. Bruxism. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2017.
  2. Tooth clenching or grinding. American Academy of Oral Medicine. http://www.aaom.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=129:tooth-clenching-or-grinding&catid=22:patient-condition-information&Itemid=120. Accessed Feb. 12, 2017.
  3. Sateia M. Sleep related bruxism. In: International Classification of Sleep Disorders. 3rd ed. Darien, Ill.: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2014. http://www.aasmnet.org/EBooks/ICSD3. Accessed Feb. 12, 2017.
  4. Mesko ME, et al. Therapies for bruxism: A systematic review and network meta-analysis (protocol). Systematic Reviews. 2017;6:4.
  5. Yap AU, et al. Sleep bruxism: Current knowledge and contemporary management. Journal of Conservative Dentistry. 2016;19:383.
  6. Guaita M, et al. Current treatment of bruxism. Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 2016;18:10.
  7. Teeth grinding. American Dental Association. http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/t/teeth-grinding. Accessed Feb. 12, 2017.
  8. Olson EJ (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Feb. 17, 2017.

Bruxism (teeth grinding)