Overview

A broken collarbone is a common injury, particularly in children and young adults. Your collarbone connects the upper part of your breastbone to your shoulder blade. Common causes of a broken collarbone include falls, sports injuries and trauma from traffic accidents. Infants can sometimes break their collarbones during the birth process.

Seek prompt medical attention for a broken collarbone. Most heal well with ice, pain relievers, a sling, physical therapy and time. But a complicated break might require surgery to realign the broken bone and to implant plates, screws or rods into the bone to hold the bone in place during healing.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of a broken collarbone include:

  • Pain that increases with shoulder movement
  • Swelling
  • Tenderness
  • Bruising
  • A bulge on or near your shoulder
  • A grinding or crackling sound when you try to move your shoulder
  • Stiffness or inability to move your shoulder
  • Newborn children will often not move their arm for several days following a birth-related collarbone fracture.

When to see a doctor

If you notice signs or symptoms of a broken collarbone in you or your child, or if there's enough pain to prevent normal use, see a doctor right away. Delays in diagnosis and treatment can lead to poor healing.

Causes

Common causes of a broken collarbone include:

  • Falls, such as falling onto your shoulder or onto your outstretched hand.
  • Sports injuries, such as a direct blow to your shoulder on the field, rink or court.
  • Vehicle trauma from a car, motorcycle or bike accident.
  • Birth injury from passing through the birth canal.

Risk factors

Your collarbone doesn't harden completely until about age 20. This puts children and teenagers at higher risk of a broken collarbone. The risk decreases after age 20, but then rises again in older people as bone strength decreases with age.

Complications

Most broken collarbones heal without difficulty. Complications, when they occur, might include:

  • Nerve or blood vessel injury. The jagged ends of a broken collarbone may injure nearby nerves and blood vessels. Seek immediate medical attention if you notice numbness or coldness in your arm or hand.
  • Poor or delayed healing. A severely broken collarbone might heal slowly or incompletely. Poor union of the bones during healing can shorten the bone.
  • A lump in the bone. As part of the healing process, the place where the bone knits together forms a bony lump. This lump is easy to see because it's close to the skin. Most lumps disappear over time, but some are permanent.
  • Osteoarthritis. A fracture that involves the joints that connect your collarbone to your shoulder blade or your breastbone might increase your risk of eventually developing arthritis in that joint.
Oct. 23, 2015
References
  1. Clavicle fracture (broken collarbone). American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00072. Accessed Sept. 30, 2015.
  2. Hatch RL, et al. Clavicle fractures. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 30, 2015.
  3. Peters MDJ. Surgical versus conservative interventions for treating broken collarbones in adolescents and adults. Orthopedic Nursing. 2014;33:171.
  4. McKee-Garrett TM. Neonatal birth injuries. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 30, 2015.