概述

唾液腺肿瘤是一种始于唾液腺的异常细胞生长(肿瘤)。唾液腺肿瘤十分罕见。

涎腺会产生唾液,有助于消化、保持口腔湿润和保护牙齿健康。颚下及后方有三对主要涎腺:腮腺、舌下腺和颌下腺。嘴唇中、颊内侧以及整个口腔和咽喉中有许多小涎腺。

唾液腺肿瘤可能始于任何唾液腺。大多数唾液腺肿瘤为非癌性(良性),但有时也可能为癌性。大多数唾液腺肿瘤发生于腮腺。

唾液腺肿瘤的治疗方法通常为手术切除肿瘤。涎腺癌患者可能需要额外治疗。

Types

症状

唾液腺肿瘤的体征和症状有:

  • 颚、颈部或口腔或附近出现肿块或肿胀
  • 面部的某些部位有麻木感
  • 一侧面部肌无力
  • 唾液腺部位持续疼痛
  • 吞咽困难
  • 难以张大口腔

何时就诊

如果您对任何持续的体征或症状感到担心,请与您的医生约诊。

唾液腺附近有肿块或肿胀区域是唾液腺肿瘤最常见的体征,但这并不意味着您患了癌症。大多数唾液腺肿瘤为非癌性(良性)。许多其他非癌性疾病可能导致唾液腺肿胀,包括感染或唾液腺导管结石。

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病因

唾液腺肿瘤很罕见。其病因尚不明确。

当一个唾液腺中的部分细胞发生 DNA 变化(突变)时,唾液腺肿瘤开始出现。细胞的 DNA 包含指示告诉细胞该做什么的指令。

这些 DNA 变化告诉细胞快速生长和分裂。健康细胞死亡时,异常细胞继续存活。不断累积的细胞形成肿瘤。

如果 DNA 中发生额外变化,异常细胞可能变成癌细胞。癌细胞可以侵入并破坏附近的组织。它们也可以从肿瘤脱离并扩散(转移)到身体的远端区域。

唾液腺肿瘤类型

唾液腺肿瘤有多种类型。医生会根据肿瘤细胞的类型将唾液腺肿瘤分型。医生要根据您的唾液腺肿瘤分型来决定最适合您的治疗方案。

非癌性(良性)唾液腺肿瘤类型包括:

  • 多形性腺瘤
  • 基底细胞腺瘤
  • 管状腺瘤
  • 嗜酸细胞瘤
  • 沃辛瘤

癌性(恶性)唾液腺肿瘤类型包括:

  1. 腺泡细胞癌
  2. 腺癌
  3. 腺样囊性癌
  4. 透明细胞癌
  5. 恶性混合瘤
  6. 黏液表皮样癌
  7. 嗜酸细胞癌
  8. 多形性低度恶性腺癌
  9. 涎腺导管癌
  10. 鳞状细胞癌

风险因素

会增加患唾液腺肿瘤风险的因素包括:

  • 年龄较大。虽然唾液腺肿瘤会发生在任何年龄段,但最常见于老年人。
  • 辐射暴露。癌症放疗,如用于治疗头颈癌症的放疗,可能增加患唾液腺肿瘤的风险。
  • 工作场所接触某些物质。工作接触某些物质的人患唾液腺肿瘤的风险可能会增加。与唾液腺肿瘤相关的工作包括橡胶制造、石棉开采和管道工程。

在 Mayo Clinic 治疗

July 30, 2020
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