概述

霍奇金淋巴瘤(以前称为霍奇金病)是一种淋巴系统癌症,而淋巴系统是免疫系统的一部分。它可能会影响任何年龄的人,但最常见于 20 至 40 岁的人群和 55 岁以上的人群。

在霍奇金淋巴瘤中,淋巴系统中的细胞异常生长,并可能扩散到其他组织。

霍奇金淋巴瘤是两种常见的淋巴系统癌症之一。另一种是非霍奇金淋巴瘤,其更普遍。

霍奇金淋巴瘤的诊断和治疗方面的进展已帮助患者提高了完全康复的机会。霍奇金淋巴瘤患者的预后继续得到改善。

Types

症状

霍奇金淋巴瘤的体征和症状可能包括:

  • 颈部,腋窝或腹股沟淋巴结无痛肿胀
  • 持续疲劳
  • 发热
  • 盗汗
  • 原因不明的体重减轻
  • 严重瘙痒
  • 对酒精效应的敏感性增加,或者饮酒后淋巴结疼痛

何时就诊

如果您对任何持续的体征或症状感到担心,请与您的医生约诊。

病因

医生们不确定霍奇金淋巴瘤的病因。淋巴细胞是抗感染细胞的一种,当淋巴细胞的 DNA 发生突变,就会引发这种病。这种突变告诉细胞快速繁殖,因此很多患病的细胞会继续繁殖。

这种突变会导致大量体积较大、异常的淋巴细胞在淋巴系统积聚,从而排挤健康细胞,导致霍奇金淋巴瘤的体征和症状。

霍奇金淋巴瘤以多种形式存在。您的诊断是基于与您的疾病有关的细胞类型及其行为。淋巴瘤的类型决定了您的治疗选择。

经典型霍奇金淋巴瘤

经典型霍奇金淋巴瘤是这种疾病的更常见类型。诊断患有这种疾病的人的淋巴结中有巨大的异常细胞,叫做里-施细胞。

经典型霍奇金淋巴瘤的亚型包括:

  • 结节硬化型霍奇金淋巴瘤
  • 混合细胞型霍奇金淋巴瘤
  • 淋巴细胞削减型霍奇金淋巴瘤
  • 淋巴细胞丰富型霍奇金淋巴瘤

结节性淋巴细胞为主的霍奇金淋巴瘤

这种非常罕见的霍奇金淋巴瘤含有较大的异常细胞,因其外观,有时被称为爆米花细胞。其治疗可能不同于通常的治疗方式。这种类型的霍奇金淋巴瘤患者早期诊断可能有更好的治愈机会。

风险因素

可能增加霍奇金淋巴瘤发病风险的因素包括:

  • 年龄。15 至 30 岁和 55 岁以上人群更常被诊断出霍奇金淋巴瘤。
  • 淋巴瘤家族史。血亲罹患霍奇金淋巴瘤或非霍奇金淋巴瘤会增加您罹患霍奇金淋巴瘤的风险。
  • 男性。男性略比女性更可能罹患霍奇金淋巴瘤。
  • 之前感染过 EB 病毒。曾因 EB 病毒而罹患传染性单核细胞增多症等疾病者比没有感染过 EB 病毒者更有可能罹患霍奇金淋巴瘤。

在 Mayo Clinic 治疗

Oct. 10, 2019
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