Telehealth: Technology meets health care
See how technology can improve your health care.By Mayo Clinic Staff
How many times have you heard it said that the internet has transformed modern life? Indeed it's probably changed how you stay in touch with family and friends, purchase goods and services, and even search for information about health problems.
A variety of telehealth tools are available to help you manage your health care and receive the services you need. Are you taking advantage of them?
What is telehealth?
Telehealth is the use of digital information and communication technologies, such as computers and mobile devices, to access health care services remotely and manage your health care. These may be technologies you use from home or that your doctor uses to improve or support health care services.
Consider, for example, the ways telehealth could help you if you have diabetes. You could do some or all of the following:
- Use a mobile phone or other device to upload food logs, medications, dosing and blood sugar levels for review by a nurse who responds electronically.
- Watch a video on carbohydrate counting and download an app for it to your phone.
- Use an app to estimate, based on your diet and exercise level, how much insulin you need.
- Use an online patient portal to see your test results, schedule appointments, request prescription refills or email your doctor.
- Order testing supplies and medications online.
- Get a mobile retinal photoscreening at your doctor's office rather than scheduling an appointment with a specialist.
- Get email, text or phone reminders when you need a flu shot, foot exam or other preventive care.
The goals of telehealth, also called e-health or m-health (mobile health), include the following:
- Make health care accessible to people who live in rural or isolated communities.
- Make services more readily available or convenient for people with limited mobility, time or transportation options.
- Provide access to medical specialists.
- Improve communication and coordination of care among members of a health care team and a patient.
- Provide support for self-management of health care.
The following examples of telehealth services may be beneficial for your health care.
Your primary care clinic may have an online patient portal. These portals offer an alternative to email, which is a generally insecure means to communicate about private medical information. A portal provides a more secure online tool to do the following:
- Communicate with your doctor or a nurse.
- Request prescription refills.
- Review test results and summaries of previous visits.
- Schedule appointments or request appointment reminders.
If your doctor is in a large health care system, the portal also may provide a single point of communication for any specialists you may see.
Some clinics may provide virtual appointments that enable you to see your doctor or a nurse via online videoconferencing. These appointments enable you to receive ongoing care from your regular doctor when an in-person visit isn't required or possible.
Other virtual appointments include web-based "visits" with a doctor or nurse practitioner. These services are generally for minor illnesses, similar to the services available at a drop-in clinic. Some large companies provide access to virtual doctors' offices as a part of their health care offerings.
When you log into a web-based service, you are guided through a series of questions. The doctor or nurse practitioner can prescribe medications, suggest home care strategies or recommend additional medical care.
Similarly, a nursing call center is staffed with nurses who use a question-and-answer format to provide advice for care at home. A nursing call center doesn't diagnose an illness or prescribe medications.
While these services are convenient, they have drawbacks:
- Treatment may not be coordinated with your regular doctor.
- Essential information from your medical history may not be considered.
- The computer-driven decision-making model may not be optimal if you have a complex medical history.
- The virtual visit lacks an in-person evaluation, which may hamper accurate diagnosis.
- The service doesn't easily allow for shared doctor-patient decision-making about treatments or making a plan B if an initial treatment doesn't work.
A variety of technologies enable your doctor or health care team to monitor your health remotely. These technologies include:
Aug. 16, 2017
- Web-based or mobile apps for uploading information, such as blood glucose readings, to your doctor or health care team
- Devices that measure and wirelessly transmit information, such as blood pressure, blood glucose or lung function
- Wearable devices that automatically record and transmit information, such as heart rate, blood glucose, gait, posture control, tremors, physical activity or sleep patterns
- Home monitoring devices for older people or people with dementia that detect changes in normal activities such as falls
See more In-depth
- Telehealth. National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Biotechnologies. https://www.nibib.nih.gov/science-education/science-topics/telehealth. Accessed Jan. 6, 2017.
- Dorsey ER, et al. State of telehealth. New England Journal of Medicine. 2016;375:154.
- Using information systems to support patient engagement. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-communication-programs/ndep/health-care-professionals/practice-transformation/information-systems/patient-engagement/pages/default.aspx. Accessed April 6, 2017.
- Heintzman ND. A digital ecosystem of diabetes data and technology: Services, systems, and tools enabled by wearables, sensors, and apps. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. 2015;10:35.
- Daniel H, et al. Policy recommendations to guide the use of telemedicine in primary care settings: An American College of Physicians position paper. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2015;163:787.
- Berry LL, et al. Toward a strategy of patient-centered access to primary care. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2014;89:1406.
- Committee on Pediatric Workforce, et al. The use of telemedicine to address access and physician workforce shortages. Pediatrics. 2015;136:202.
- Margolis KL, et al. Effect of home blood pressure telemonitoring and pharmacist management on blood pressure control: A cluster randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2013;310:46.
- Godinho C, et al. A systematic review of the characteristics and validity of monitoring technologies to assess Parkinson's disease. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation. 2016;13:24.
- Bossen AL, et al. Emerging roles for telemedicine and smart technologies in dementia care. Journal of Smart Homecare Technology and TeleHealth. 2015;3:49.
- Kirsh SR, et al. Providing specialty consultant expertise to primary care: An expanding spectrum of modalities. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2014;89:1416.
- Telemedicine glossary. American Telemedicine Association. http://thesource.americantelemed.org/resources/telemedicine-glossary. Accessed April 6, 2017.
- Inglis SC, et al. Structured telephone support or non-invasive telemonitoring for patients with heart failure. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD007228.pub3/full. Accessed Feb. 14, 2017.
- What is a personal health record (PHR)? MyPHR.com. http://www.myphr.com/StartaPHR/what_is_a_phr.aspx. Accessed April 20, 2017.