Epiglottitis is caused by an infection or an injury.
In the past, a common cause of swelling and inflammation of the epiglottis and surrounding tissues was infection with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) bacteria. Hib is responsible for a number of serious conditions, the most common of which is meningitis. This is now much less common in developed countries due to Hib immunization in children.
Hib spreads through infected droplets coughed or sneezed into the air. It's possible to harbor Hib in your nose and throat without becoming sick — though you still have the potential to spread the bacteria to others.
In adults, other bacteria and viruses also can cause inflammation of the epiglottis, including:
- Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), another bacterium that can cause meningitis, pneumonia, ear infections and blood infection (septicemia)
- Streptococcus A, B and C, a group of bacteria that also can cause diseases ranging from strep throat to blood infections
Physical injury, such as a direct blow to the throat, can cause epiglottitis. So can burns from drinking very hot or caustic liquids.
You also may develop signs and symptoms similar to those of epiglottitis if you:
Aug. 08, 2015
- Swallow a chemical that burns your throat
- Swallow a foreign object
- Smoke drugs, such as crack cocaine
- Epiglottitis. Merck Manual Professional Version. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/ear-nose-and-throat-disorders/oral-and-pharyngeal-disorders/epiglottitis. Accessed July 24, 2015.
- Protect your child against Hib disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/Features/HibDisease/. Accessed July 24, 2015.
- Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hib.html. Accessed July 24, 2015.
- Woods CR. Epiglottitis (supraglottitis): Clinical features and diagnosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 24, 2015.
- Woods CR. Epiglottitis (supraglottitis): Treatment and prevention. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 24, 2015.
- Hay WW, et al. Respiratory tract & mediastinum. In: Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Pediatrics. 22nd ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2014. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed July 24, 2015.
- Knoop KJ, et al. Pediatric conditions. In: The Atlas of Emergency Medicine. 3rd ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2010. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed July 24, 2015.
- Papadakis MA, et al., eds. Ear, nose, & throat disorders. In: Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2015. 54th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2015. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed July 24, 2015.
- AskMayoExpert. Upper respiratory tract infection (adult and pediatric). Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014.
- Steckelberg JM (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 27, 2015.