Memory loss: When to seek help
A number of conditions — not only Alzheimer's disease — can cause memory loss in older adults. Getting a prompt diagnosis and appropriate care is important.By Mayo Clinic Staff
Everyone forgets things at some time. How often have you misplaced your car keys or forgotten the name of a person you just met?
Some degree of memory problems, as well as a modest decline in other thinking skills, is a fairly common part of aging. There's a difference, however, between normal changes in memory and the type of memory loss associated with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. And some memory problems are the result of treatable conditions.
If you're experiencing memory problems, talk to your doctor to get a timely diagnosis and appropriate care.
Memory loss and aging
Normal age-related memory loss doesn't prevent you from living a full and productive life. For example, you may forget a person's name, but recall it later in the day. You might misplace your glasses occasionally. Or maybe you find that you need to make lists more often than in the past in order to remember appointments or tasks.
These changes in memory are generally manageable and don't disrupt your ability to work, live independently or maintain a social life.
Memory loss and dementia
The word "dementia" is an umbrella term used to describe a set of symptoms, including impairment in memory, reasoning, judgment, language and other thinking skills. Dementia begins gradually in most cases, worsens over time and significantly impairs a person's abilities in work, social interactions and relationships.
Often, memory loss is one of the first or more-recognizable signs of dementia. Other early signs may include:
- Asking the same questions repeatedly
- Forgetting common words when speaking
- Mixing words up — saying "bed" instead of "table," for example
- Taking longer to complete familiar tasks, such as following a recipe
- Misplacing items in inappropriate places, such as putting a wallet in a kitchen drawer
- Getting lost while walking or driving around a familiar neighborhood
- Undergoing sudden changes in mood or behavior for no apparent reason
- Becoming less able to follow directions
Diseases that cause progressive damage to the brain — and consequently result in dementia — include:
- Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia
- Vascular dementia (multi-infarct dementia)
- Frontotemporal dementia
- Lewy body dementia
Each of these conditions has a somewhat different disease process (pathology). Memory impairment isn't always the first sign of disease, and the type of memory problems may vary.
Mild cognitive impairment
Mild cognitive impairment is a notable change in thinking skills that's limited, for the most part, to a narrow set of problems, such as impairment only in memory. Changes in concentration, attention or mental quickness may also be observed. Mild cognitive impairment generally doesn't prevent a person from carrying out everyday tasks and being socially engaged.
Researchers and physicians are still learning much about mild cognitive impairment. For many people, the condition eventually progresses to Alzheimer's disease or another disorder causing dementia.
Other people experience little progression in memory loss, and they don't develop the whole spectrum of symptoms associated with dementia.
June 05, 2014
See more In-depth
- Forgetfulness: Knowing when to ask for help. National Institute on Aging. http://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/forgetfulness. Accessed April 16, 2014.
- Goldman L, et al. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed April 8, 2014.
- Longo DL, et al. Harrison's Online. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=4. Accessed April 8, 2014.
- Alzheimer's disease fact sheet. National Institute on Aging. http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/publication/alzheimers-disease-fact-sheet. Accessed April 8, 2014.
- Caring for a person with Alzheimer's disease. National Institute on Aging. http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/publication/caring-person-alzheimers-disease/about-guide. Accessed April 8, 2014.