概述

大脑和脊髓的周围神经向身体其他部位发出信号,帮助您进行一些活动,例如感知脚是冷的和运动肌肉以便您行走。周围神经由被周围组织隔开的纤维(称为轴突)组成,不仅脆弱,而且容易受到损伤。

神经损伤可影响您的大脑与肌肉和器官沟通的能力。对周围神经的损伤称为周围神经病变。

尽快对周围神经损伤进行医学治疗很重要。早期诊断和治疗可以预防并发症和永久性损伤。

症状

周围神经损伤时,您可能出现从轻度至严重限制日常活动的症状。症状还取决于哪些神经纤维受累:

  • 运动神经。这些神经在您的意识控制下调节所有肌肉,例如行走、交谈或者握住物品。损伤这些神经一般伴随肌无力、痛性痉挛和不可控制的肌肉抽搐。
  • 感觉神经。因为这些神经传递触觉、温度和疼痛信息,所以您可能会出现各种症状。包括手或足麻木或刺痛。您可能难以感觉到疼痛或温度变化、难以步行、难以闭上眼睛时保持自身平衡或者难以扣上扣子。
  • 自主神经。这组神经可调节不受意识控制的活动,例如呼吸系统、心脏和甲状腺功能及消化食物。症状可能包括出汗过多、血压变化、不能耐热和胃肠道症状。

您可能出现各种症状,原因是许多周围神经损伤影响不止一个类型的神经纤维。

何时就诊

如果您感到四肢无力、刺痛、麻木或完全失去知觉,请咨询医生以确定原因。周围神经损伤务必及早治疗。

病因

周围神经可由于多种方式受损:

  • 事故、跌倒或运动造成的受伤会拉伸、压迫、挤压或割伤神经。
  • 疾病,比如糖尿病、吉兰 - 巴雷综合征和腕管综合征。
  • 自身免疫病,包括狼疮、类风湿关节炎和干燥综合征。

其他病因包括动脉狭窄、激素失衡和肿瘤。

在 Mayo Clinic 治疗

June 23, 2022
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