概述

在心脏瓣膜病中,一个或多个心脏瓣膜无法正常工作。心脏有四个瓣膜。这些瓣膜可以确保血液按正确方向流经心脏。有时,瓣膜不能完全开合。这会改变血液从心脏流向身体其他部位的途径。

心脏瓣膜病的治疗方法取决于受影响的心脏瓣膜和疾病的类型和严重程度。有时需要通过手术来修复或置换心脏瓣膜。

症状

一些患有心脏瓣膜病的人可能很多年都不会出现症状。如果出现症状,则可能包括:

  • 休息时或活动或躺下时气短。
  • 疲劳。
  • 胸部疼痛。
  • 头晕。
  • 踝关节肿胀和脚肿。
  • 昏厥。
  • 心律不齐。

何时就诊

如果您具有心脏瓣膜病的可能症状,请预约健康检查。您可能会被转诊给在心脏病领域训练有素的医生(称为心脏科医生)。

病因

如需了解心脏瓣膜病的原因,了解心脏的工作原理可能会有所帮助。

心脏有四个瓣膜,保证血流方向正确。这四个瓣膜分别为:

  • 主动脉瓣。
  • 二尖瓣。
  • 肺动脉瓣。
  • 三尖瓣。

每个瓣膜都有瓣叶,称为小叶或尖瓣。心脏每跳动一次,这些瓣叶就会开合一次。如果瓣叶无法正常开合,从心脏流向身体其他部位的血液就会减少。

心脏瓣膜病的类型包括:

  • 狭窄。瓣叶变厚或变硬,有时可能会缀合在一起。瓣膜开口变窄。流经狭窄瓣膜的血液会减少。
  • 反流。瓣叶可能无法紧闭,导致血液反流。
  • 脱垂。瓣叶伸长且松软下垂。它们像降落伞一样向后膨出。这种情况可能会导致反流。
  • 闭锁。瓣膜未形成。心腔之间的血流将被一个实心片状组织阻塞。这种类型通常影响肺动脉瓣。

有些人天生患有心脏瓣膜病。这称为先天性心脏瓣膜病。但成人也可能患上心脏瓣膜病。成人心脏瓣膜病的病因可能包括感染、增龄性变化和其他心脏医疗状况。

风险因素

一些因素会增加患心脏瓣膜病的风险,包括:

  • 年龄较大。
  • 某些感染,如风湿热或血液感染。
  • 心脏病发作和某些类型的心脏病。
  • 高血压、高胆固醇、糖尿病和其他心脏病风险因素。

并发症

心脏瓣膜疾病可能引起很多并发症,包括:

  • 心力衰竭
  • 卒中
  • 血凝块
  • 心律异常
  • 死亡

在 Mayo Clinic 治疗

Feb. 03, 2024

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