概述

口底癌发于舌头下面的组织。

口底癌最常起源于口腔内侧扁平的薄细胞(鳞状细胞)。口腔底部组织的外观和触感变化(如肿块或无法愈合的溃疡)通常是口底癌的第一个体征。

口底癌的治疗方法包括手术、放射疗法和化疗。

症状

口底癌的体征和症状可包括:

  • 口腔疼痛
  • 无法愈合的口腔溃疡
  • 牙齿松动
  • 吞咽疼痛
  • 体重减轻
  • 耳痛
  • 颈部肿胀,可能产生疼痛感
  • 无法自主愈合的口腔白班

何时就诊

与医生或牙医讨论任何使您担忧的持续性体征和症状。

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病因

基因突变使正常健康的细胞转变成异常细胞时,就会形成口底癌。健康细胞以一定速度生长和增殖,并最终在固定的时间死亡。异常细胞的生长和增殖不受控制,且不会死亡。异常细胞聚集并形成团块(肿瘤)。癌细胞浸润附近组织,可以从原发肿瘤中分离,扩散到(转移)其他身体部位。

风险因素

可能增加患口底癌风险的因素包括:

  • 吸烟
  • 饮酒
  • 感染人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)
  • 服用抑制免疫系统的药物

如果您吸烟和饮酒,您的风险会更高。

预防

降低患口底癌风险的方法:

  • 不抽烟。如果您不抽烟,就不要尝试。如果您目前使用任何形式的烟草制品,与医生讨论帮助您戒烟的策略。
  • 如果您选择饮酒,请限制酒量。如果您喝酒,请适量。对于健康成人,女性每天最多喝一杯,男性每天最多喝两杯。
  • 定期牙齿保健。就诊时,您的牙科医生会检查您口腔癌症的体征和癌症前病变。
  • 考虑 HPV 疫苗。接种疫苗预防 HPV 感染可能降低您患 HPV 相关癌症的风险,例如口腔癌。询问医生您是否可以接种HPV疫苗。

在 Mayo Clinic 治疗

Aug. 12, 2021
  1. AskMayoExpert. Oral cavity carcinoma, stages I to IV: Diagnosis to first treatment (adult). Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2017.
  2. Flint PW, et al. Malignant neoplasms of the oral cavity. In: Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed June 2, 2019.
  3. Head and neck cancers. Plymouth Meeting, Pa.: National Comprehensive Cancer Network. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/default.aspx. Accessed April 1, 2019.
  4. Warner KJ. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. May 3, 2019.
  5. Fonseca RJ, ed. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral and maxillofacial region. In: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 3rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier; 2018. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 14, 2019.
  6. Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer prevention (PDQ) — Health professional version. National Cancer Institute. https://www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/oral-prevention-pdq. Accessed July 14, 2019.
  7. 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines. Accessed Aug. 5, 2019.

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