诊断

在讨论了您的症状和健康史之后,医生会进行乳房检查,可能会要求做诊断性乳房 X 光检查或乳腺超声波检查。根据临床乳房检查和影像学检查的结果,您可能需要进行针吸抽吸或乳房活检。

乳房检查

您的医生会对乳房肿块进行体检,并检查乳房的其他异常情况。因为医生无法仅根据临床乳房检查来分辨乳房肿块是否为囊肿,所以您需要做另一项检查。通常为影像学检查或细针抽吸。

乳腺超声

乳腺超声可以帮助医生确定乳房肿块中是有液体还是实心。充满液体的区域通常表明是乳腺囊肿。看似实心的肿块很可能是非癌性肿块,如纤维腺瘤,但也可能是乳腺癌。

您的医生可能会建议进行活检来进一步评估该看似实心的小块。如果很容易感觉到乳房肿块,医生可能跳过乳腺超声波检查而进行细针抽吸。

细针吸取

在细针抽吸过程中,您的医生将一根细针插入乳房肿块中,试图抽取(抽吸)液体。通常,细针吸取利用超声引导来准确放置针头。如果液体流出,肿块消失,医生可以立即诊断乳腺囊肿。

  • 如果液体中没有血,乳房肿块消失,您就不需要进一步的检查或治疗。
  • 如果液体中有血或乳房肿块没有消失,您的医生可能会将液体样本送检实验室,并将您转诊给乳腺外科医生或放射科医生(接受过影像学检查操作培训的医生)进行随访。
  • 如果没有抽出液体,您的医生可能会建议您做影像学检查,比如诊断性乳房 X 光检查或者超声波检查。液体稀少或抽吸后乳房肿块未消失表明乳房肿块(至少一部分)是实心的,可以采集细胞样本来检查肿瘤(细针抽吸活检)。

Breast exam

After discussing your symptoms and health history, your doctor will physically examine the breast lump and check for any other breast abnormalities. Because your doctor can't tell from a clinical breast exam alone whether a breast lump is a cyst, you'll need another test. This is usually either an imaging test or fine-needle aspiration.

Imaging tests

Needed tests may include:

  • Mammography. Large cysts and clusters of small cysts can usually be seen with mammography. But microcysts can be difficult or impossible to see on a mammogram.
  • Breast ultrasound. This test can help your doctor determine whether a breast lump is fluid filled or solid. A fluid-filled area usually indicates a breast cyst. A solid-appearing mass most likely is a noncancerous lump, such as a fibroadenoma, but solid lumps also could be breast cancer.

Your doctor may recommend a biopsy to further evaluate a mass that appears solid. If your doctor can easily feel a breast lump, he or she may skip imaging tests and perform fine-needle aspiration to drain the fluid and collapse the cyst.

Fine-needle aspiration

During a fine-needle aspiration, your doctor inserts a thin needle into the breast lump and attempts to withdraw (aspirate) fluid. Often, fine-needle aspiration is done using ultrasound to guide accurate placement of the needle. If fluid comes out and the breast lump goes away, your doctor can make a breast cyst diagnosis immediately.

  • If the fluid is not bloody and has a straw-colored appearance and the breast lump disappears, you need no further testing or treatment.
  • If the fluid appears bloody or the breast lump doesn't disappear, your doctor may send a sample of the fluid for lab testing and refer you to a breast surgeon or to a radiologist — a doctor trained to perform imaging exams and procedures — for follow-up.
  • If no fluid is withdrawn, your doctor will likely recommend an imaging test, such as a diagnostic mammogram or ultrasound. The lack of fluid or a breast lump that doesn't disappear after aspiration suggests that the breast lump — or at least a portion of it — is solid. A sample of the tissue may be collected to check for cancer.

治疗

单纯性乳腺囊肿,即经乳腺超声波检查或细针抽吸后确诊的充满液体、不引起任何症状的囊肿,无需治疗。如果肿块持续存在或随着时间推移而感觉不一样,请及时预约复诊。

细针抽吸

细针抽吸术可以诊断和治疗乳腺囊肿,即医生在诊断时将囊肿内的液体全部抽出,乳房肿块会消失,症状得到缓解。

但对于一些乳腺囊肿,您可能需要进行 1 次以上的抽吸。囊肿复发或新发很常见。如果乳腺囊肿在 2 到 3 个月经周期内持续存在,并且越来越大,请去咨询医生并做进一步评估。

使用激素

使用避孕药(口服避孕药)来调节月经周期,可以帮助减少乳腺囊肿的复发。但由于避孕药可能存在明显的副作用,通常只建议症状严重的女性服用避孕药或其他激素治疗,如他莫昔芬。绝经后停止激素治疗也有助于预防乳腺囊肿。

外科手术

只有在特殊情况下才需要进行手术切除乳腺囊肿。如果令人不适的乳腺囊肿每月复发,乳腺囊肿含有带血的液体或者出现其他令人担忧的症状,可以考虑手术治疗。

Fine-needle aspiration

Fine-needle aspiration may be used to diagnose and treat a breast cyst if all the fluid can be removed from the cyst during the procedure, and then your breast lump disappears and your symptoms resolve.

For some breast cysts, however, you may need to have fluid drained more than once. Recurrent or new cysts are common. If a breast cyst persists through two to three menstrual cycles and grows larger, see your doctor for further evaluation.

Hormone use

Using birth control pills (oral contraceptives) to regulate your menstrual cycles may help reduce the recurrence of breast cysts. But because of possible significant side effects, birth control pills or other hormone therapy, such as tamoxifen, is usually recommended only for women with severe symptoms. Discontinuing hormone therapy after menopause may also help prevent breast cysts.

Surgery

Surgery to remove a breast cyst is necessary only in unusual circumstances. Surgery may be considered if an uncomfortable breast cyst recurs month after month or if a breast cyst contains blood-tinged fluid or shows other worrisome signs.

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临床试验

探索 Mayo Clinic 的研究 测试新的治疗、干预与检查方法,旨在预防、检测、治疗或控制这种疾病。

生活方式与家庭疗法

为了最大程度地减少与乳腺囊肿相关的不适,您可以尝试以下措施:

  • 穿合适的支撑性文胸。如果您的乳腺囊肿疼痛,则支撑乳房可能会缓解一些不适。
  • 进行按敷。如果囊肿很痛,热敷或冷敷可以缓解疼痛。敷冰袋也可以缓解疼痛。
  • 避免摄入咖啡因。没有证据表明咖啡因和乳腺囊肿之间存在联系。但有些女性从饮食中去除咖啡因后,症状会缓解。请考虑减少或戒除从饮料以及巧克力等食品中摄入咖啡因,看看症状是否有所改善。
  • 如果医生建议,可以考虑尝试非处方止痛药。某些类型的乳房疼痛可以通过使用对乙酰氨基酚(Tylenol 等)或非甾体抗炎药,如布洛芬(Advil、Motrin IB 等)或萘普生(Aleve、Naprosyn 等)来缓解。

替代医学

月见草油是一种脂肪酸(亚油酸)补剂,是一种非处方药。一些小型研究表示月见草油可能会缓解月经周期的乳房疼痛,该病有时与乳腺囊肿有关。但由于研究规模较小、不可控且证据也不是结论性的,因此还需要开展更多研究。虽然尚不明确其确切机制,但一些专家认为在缺乏亚油酸的女性在月经期间对荷尔蒙波动更加敏感,进而导致乳房疼痛。

请告知您的医生您目前正在服用的维生素、草药及其他膳食补剂。

准备您的预约

您可以让初级保健医生评估新出现的乳房肿块或乳房的变化。医生可能会根据临床乳房检查或影像学检查结果,将您转诊给乳腺健康专科医生。

您可以做什么

首次评估会侧重于您的病史。您将需要讨论您的症状、症状与月经周期的关系以及任何其他相关信息。在为此讨论做准备时,请列出以下内容:

  • 您的所有症状,即使它们看似与您安排本次约诊的原因无关。
  • 关键的个人信息,包括主要压力或近期的生活变化
  • 您定期服用的所有药物、维生素、草药和补充剂
  • 要向医生咨询的问题,按重要性从高到低的顺序列出,以确保包含您最关注的要点

要向医生咨询的基本问题包括:

  • 我的症状是什么原因引起的?
  • 患上囊肿是否会增加患乳腺癌的风险?
  • 我需要做哪些类型的检查?
  • 哪种治疗方法可能最有效?
  • 除了您推荐的主要治疗方法以外,还有什么替代疗法?
  • 我需要遵守哪些限制规定?
  • 有没有我可以带回家的印刷材料?您建议哪些网站?

如果有任何不理解的地方,您可以随时提出问题。

医生可能做些什么

准备好回答医生可能询问的问题,例如:

  • 您第一次发现乳腺囊肿或肿块是什么时候?
  • 您是否发现了乳腺囊肿或肿块的大小变化?
  • 您出现过哪些症状以及这些症状持续了多长时间?
  • 您的症状发生在单侧乳房还是两侧乳房?
  • 是否有任何症状随时间的推移而变化?
  • 您是否出现过乳房疼痛?如果有,严重程度如何?
  • 您是否出现乳头溢液?如果有,出现在单侧乳房还是两侧乳房?
  • 您的月经周期如何影响乳腺囊肿或肿块?
  • 上一次乳房 X 光检查是什么时候?
  • 您是否有乳腺囊肿或肿块家族史?
  • 您以前是否有过乳腺囊肿或肿块、进行过乳房活检或患过乳腺癌

What you can do

The first evaluation focuses on your medical history. You'll discuss your symptoms, their relation to your menstrual cycle and any other relevant information. To prepare for this discussion, make lists that include:

  • All of your symptoms, even if they seem unrelated to the reason you scheduled the appointment
  • Key personal information, including major stresses or recent life changes
  • All medications, vitamins, herbal remedies and supplements that you regularly take
  • Questions to ask your doctor, from most important to least important to be sure you cover the points you're most concerned about

Basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What might be causing my symptoms?
  • Does having cysts increase my risk of breast cancer?
  • What kinds of tests do I need?
  • Will I need treatment? If so, what treatments are available?
  • Are there any restrictions I'll need to follow?
  • Are there any printed materials that I can take home? What websites do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to ask questions anytime you don't understand something.

What to expect from your doctor

Be prepared to answer questions that your doctor may ask, such as:

  • When did you first notice the breast cyst or lump?
  • Have you noticed a change in the size of the breast cyst or lump?
  • What symptoms have you experienced, and how long have you had them?
  • Do your symptoms occur in one or both breasts?
  • Have any symptoms changed over time?
  • Do you have breast pain? If so, how severe is it?
  • Do you have nipple discharge? If so, does it occur in one or both breasts?
  • How does your menstrual cycle affect the breast cyst or lump?
  • When was your last mammogram?
  • Do you have a family history of breast cysts or lumps?
  • Have you previously had a breast cyst or lump, a breast biopsy or breast cancer?
Nov. 18, 2020
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  2. Fibrosis and simple cysts in the breast. American Cancer Society. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/non-cancerous-breast-conditions/fibrosis-and-simple-cysts-in-the-breast.html. Accessed Oct. 16, 2020.
  3. Understanding breast changes. National Cancer Institute. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/understanding-breast-changes. Accessed Oct. 16, 2020.
  4. Townsend CM Jr, et al. Breast. In: Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: The Biological Basis of Modern Surgical Practice. 20th ed. Elsevier; 2017. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Oct. 17, 2020.
  5. Bland KI, et al., eds. Etiology and management of benign breast disease. In: The Breast: Comprehensive Management of Benign and Malignant Diseases. 5th ed. Elsevier; 2018. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Oct. 17, 2020.
  6. AskMayoExpert. Benign breast disease. Mayo Clinic; 2020.
  7. Golshan M, et al. Breast pain. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Oct. 20, 2020.
  8. Pruthi S (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic. Oct. 22, 2020.