Overview

Chiropractic adjustment is a procedure in which trained specialists (chiropractors) use their hands or a small instrument to apply a controlled, sudden force to a spinal joint. The goal of this procedure, also known as spinal manipulation, is to improve spinal motion and improve your body's physical function.

Why it's done

Low back pain, neck pain and headache are the most common problems for which people seek chiropractic adjustment.

Risks

Chiropractic adjustment is safe when it's performed by someone trained and licensed to deliver chiropractic care. Serious complications associated with chiropractic adjustment are overall rare, but may include:

  • A herniated disk or a worsening of an existing disk herniation
  • Compression of nerves in the lower spinal column (cauda equina syndrome)
  • A certain type of stroke (vertebral artery dissection) after neck manipulation

Don't seek chiropractic adjustment if you have:

  • Severe osteoporosis
  • Numbness, tingling or loss of strength in an arm or leg
  • Cancer in your spine
  • An increased risk of stroke
  • A known bone abnormality in the upper neck

How you prepare

No special preparation is required before a chiropractic adjustment.

Chiropractic treatment may require a series of visits to your chiropractor, but most people attain maximum improvement in six to 10 visits. Many health insurance policies cover chiropractic care, but you might want to check to see how many treatments are covered in a given time period.

What you can expect

At your initial visit, your chiropractor will ask questions about your health history and perform a physical exam, with particular attention to your spine. Your chiropractor may also recommend other examinations or tests, such as X-rays.

During the procedure

During a typical chiropractic adjustment, your chiropractor places you in specific positions to treat affected areas. Often, you're positioned lying facedown on a specially designed, padded chiropractic table. The chiropractor uses his or her hands to apply a controlled, sudden force to a joint, pushing it beyond its usual range of motion. You may hear popping or cracking sounds as your chiropractor moves your joints during the treatment session.

After the procedure

Some people experience minor side effects for a few days after chiropractic adjustment. These may include headache, fatigue or pain in the parts of the body that were treated.

Results

Chiropractic adjustment can be effective in treating low back pain, although much of the research done shows only a modest benefit — similar to the results of more conventional treatments. Some studies suggest that spinal manipulation also may be effective for headaches and other spine-related conditions, such as neck pain.

Not everyone responds to chiropractic adjustments. A lot depends on your particular situation. If your symptoms don't begin to improve after several weeks of treatments, chiropractic adjustment might not be the best option for you.

Dec. 07, 2018
References
  1. Chiropractic: In depth. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/chiropractic/introduction.htm. Accessed Sept. 17, 2018.
  2. AskMayoExpert. Chiropractic treatment. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2018.
  3. Shekelle P, et al. Spinal manipulation in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain. https://www.uptodate.com/search. Accessed Sept. 17, 2018.
  4. Bauer BA. Chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation. In: Mayo Clinic Guide to Integrative Medicine. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2017.
  5. Spinal manipulation for low-back pain. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/pain/spinemanipulation.htm. Accessed Sept. 17, 2018.
  6. Paige NM, et al. Association of spinal manipulative therapy with clinical benefit and harm for acute low back pain: Systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2017;317:1451.
  7. Gay RE (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Sept. 19, 2018.

Chiropractic adjustment