Glucosamine is a natural compound found in cartilage — the tough tissue that cushions joints.
In supplement form, glucosamine is harvested from shells of shellfish or made in a lab. There are several forms of glucosamine, including glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride and N-acetyl glucosamine. These supplements are not considered interchangeable.
People use glucosamine sulfate orally to treat a painful condition caused by the inflammation, breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage (osteoarthritis).
Research on glucosamine use for specific conditions shows:
- Osteoarthritis. Oral use of glucosamine sulfate might provide some pain relief for people with osteoarthritis of the knee, hip or spine.
- Rheumatoid arthritis. Early research suggests that oral use of glucosamine hydrochloride might reduce pain related to rheumatoid arthritis when compared with placebo, an inactive substance. However, researchers didn't see an improvement in inflammation or the number of painful or swollen joints.
When considering glucosamine, read product labels carefully to make sure you choose the correct form. While glucosamine sulfate has been studied for treatment of arthritis, there's no clinical evidence to support the use of N-acetyl glucosamine in treating arthritis.
Glucosamine sulfate might provide pain relief for people with osteoarthritis. The supplement appears to be safe and might be a helpful option for people who can't take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). While study results are mixed, glucosamine sulfate might be worth a try.
Oct. 14, 2017
- Hess A. Chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine supplements in osteoarthritis. Arthritis Foundation. http://www.arthritis.org/living-with-arthritis/treatments/natural/other-therapies/glucosamine-chondroitin-ineffective.php. Accessed Sept. 12, 2017.
- N-acetyl glucosamine. Natural Medicines. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com. Accessed Sept. 12, 2017.
- Handout on health: Osteoarthritis. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. https://www.niams.nih.gov/health_info/osteoarthritis/. Accessed Sept. 12, 2017.
- Glucosamine sulfate. Natural Medicines. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com. Accessed Sept. 12, 2017.
- Glucosamine and chondroitin for osteoarthritis. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/glucosaminechondroitin. Accessed Sept. 12, 2017.
- Sherman AL, et al. Use of glucosamine and chondroitin in persons with osteoarthritis. PM&R. 2012;4:S110.
- Glucosamine hydrochloride. Natural Medicines. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com. Accessed Sept. 12, 2017.