Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) is one of the oldest living tree species. Most ginkgo products are made with extract prepared from its fan-shaped leaves.
The most helpful components of ginkgo are believed to be flavonoids, which have powerful antioxidant qualities, and terpenoids, which help improve circulation by dilating blood vessels and reducing the "stickiness" of platelets.
Ginkgo is commonly available as an oral tablet, extract, capsule or tea. Don't eat raw or roasted ginkgo seeds, which can be poisonous.
Most research on ginkgo focuses on its effect on dementia, memory and pain caused by too little blood flow (claudication).
Research on ginkgo use for specific conditions shows:
- Dementia. There isn't enough evidence to support the use of ginkgo to prevent dementia or treat people with mild cognitive impairment.
- Claudication. A review of the research suggests that taking ginkgo has no significant benefits for people with this condition.
Ginkgo's effect on memory enhancement has had conflicting results. While some evidence suggests that ginkgo extract might modestly improve memory in healthy adults, most studies indicate that ginkgo doesn't improve memory, attention or brain function.
While ginkgo appears to be safe in moderate amounts, research doesn't support use of the supplement to prevent or slow dementia or cognitive decline. Further research is needed to find out what role ginkgo might play in supporting brain function and treating other conditions.
Oct. 12, 2017
- Ginkgo. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/ginkgo/ataglance.htm. Accessed Aug. 11, 2017.
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- Ginkgo. Natural Medicines. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/. Accessed Aug. 22, 2017.
- Nicolai SP, et al. Ginkgo biloba for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD006888.pub3/abstract. Accessed Aug. 23, 2017.