Diagnosis

The symptoms associated with prostatitis can be caused by a number of conditions. You may be referred to a specialist in urinary and reproductive system disorders (urologist). Your health care provider will conduct a physical exam, review your symptoms and medical history, and order tests to determine the cause and rule out certain conditions.

Test for diagnosing bacterial infections

Diagnostic tests to assess for infection will likely include:

  • Digital rectal exam. With this procedure, your health care provider inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into your rectum to detect inflammation of the prostate.
  • Urine test. You'll need to provide a urine sample to be tested for the presence and type of bacterial infection.
  • Blood test. Blood samples may be tested for signs of infection and other prostate problems.
  • Prostatic specimen test. In some cases, a health care provider may gently massage the prostate during a rectal exam to release prostate fluid into your urethra. A urine sample after the massage expels the prostate fluid for bacterial testing.

Other tests

If initial tests show no sign of infection, you may undergo other tests, including:

  • Urodynamic tests. A variety of tests can be used to measure how well the bladder and urethra hold and release urine. These tests can help characterize problems with urinating and identify the source of problems.
  • Imaging. Imaging tests may be ordered for identifying irregularities in the prostate, abnormal growths or other problems in the pelvic region that may be contributing to pain.

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Treatment

Treatment for prostatitis depends on the specific type diagnosed and your symptoms.

Treating infection

If you have acute or chronic bacterial prostatitis, you'll take antibiotics. Acute disease may require intravenous (IV) antibiotics in the hospital for a short period. The entire course of antibiotic treatment is usually 4 to 6 weeks — or longer in some cases. Taking all the prescribed medication is important for eliminating the infection and reducing the risk of chronic bacterial prostatitis.

Treating urinary symptoms

Medications, called alpha-blockers, help relax the bladder neck and the muscle fibers where your prostate joins your bladder. This treatment might ease urinary symptoms, such as painful or difficult urination. While this is commonly prescribed for men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, it may be prescribed to relieve urinary symptoms of bacterial infections.

Treating pain

Your health care provider may prescribe pain medication or recommend nonprescription drugs, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others).

Managing psychological symptoms

Your health care provider may recommend psychotherapy with a mental health care professional to help you manage stress, depression or anxiety that may be associated with chronic pain.

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Lifestyle and home remedies

The following remedies might ease some symptoms of prostatitis:

  • Soak in a warm bath (sitz bath) or use a heating pad.
  • Limit or avoid alcohol, caffeine, and spicy or acidic foods, which can irritate your bladder.
  • Drink plenty of water. This will cause you to urinate more and help flush bacteria from your bladder.

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Alternative medicine

Alternative therapies that show some promise for reducing symptoms of prostatitis include:

  • Biofeedback. A biofeedback specialist uses signals from monitoring equipment to teach you to control certain body functions and responses, including relaxing your muscles.
  • Acupuncture. This treatment for pain management involves inserting very thin needles through your skin to various depths at certain points on your body.
  • Herbal remedies. Some studies suggest that rye grass pollen extract (cernilton) may help manage pain associated with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. There is insufficient evidence for other herbal remedies for treating pain associated with prostatitis.

Discuss your use of alternative medicine practices and herbal treatments with your doctor.

Preparing for your appointment

A review of your symptoms and medical history will be an important part of the examination with your health care provider. Be prepared to answer the following questions:

  • When did your symptoms begin?
  • Are your symptoms constant, or do they come and go?
  • Are you experiencing pain? Where?
  • Do you experience pain when urinating?
  • Do you have difficulty urinating, such as dribbling or hesitant urination?
  • Have you observed bloody or cloudy urine?
  • Have you experienced a sudden, urgent need to urinate?
  • Are you urinating more often than usual?
  • How often do you need to urinate in the night?
  • Do you experience pain when ejaculating?
  • Have you been diagnosed with bacterial prostatitis or a urinary tract infection in the past? When?
  • Did you take all of the pills for that infection?
  • Have you had a recent injury to your groin?
  • What medications, dietary supplements, herbal products and vitamins do you take?
Feb. 19, 2022
  1. AskMayoExpert. Prostatitis (adult). Mayo Clinic; 2021.
  2. Partin AW, et al., eds. Inflammatory and pain conditions of the male genitourinary tract: Prostatitis and related pain conditions, orchitis, and epididymitis. In: Campbell-Walsh-Wein Urology. 12th ed. Elsevier; 2021. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 9, 2021.
  3. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/prostate-problems/prostatitis-inflammation-prostate. Accessed Nov. 10, 2021.
  4. Meyrier A, et al. Acute bacterial prostatitis. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Nov. 9, 2021.
  5. Meyrier A, et al. Chronic bacterial prostatitis. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Nov. 9, 2021.
  6. Pontari M. Chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Nov. 9, 2021.
  7. Berg E, et al. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome leads to impaired semen parameters, increased sperm dna fragmentation and unfavorable changes of sperm protamine mRNA ratio. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; doi:10.3390/ijms22157854.
  8. Langston ME, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of associations between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer: New estimates accounting for detection bias. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 2019; doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0387.
  9. Langston ME, et al. Why do epidemiologic studies find an inverse association between intraprostatic inflammation and prostate cancer: A possible role for colliding bias? Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 2021; doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1009.
  10. Rye grass. Natural Medicines. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com. Accessed Nov. 12, 2021.

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