概述

儿童脑肿瘤是在儿童大脑或其附近的组织和结构中发生的异常细胞团或异常细胞生长。儿童脑肿瘤有许多不同类型 — 有些是非癌性(良性)脑肿瘤,而另一些是癌性(恶性)脑肿瘤。

治疗和恢复的机会(预后)取决于肿瘤类型、其在大脑中的位置、是否扩散、孩子的年龄和总体健康状况。由于不断开发出新的治疗方法和技术,因此在治疗的不同阶段可能有几种选择。

儿童脑肿瘤的治疗方法通常与成人脑肿瘤的治疗方法大不相同,因此,具有专业知识和经验的儿科神经病学和癌症专家非常重要。

妙佑医疗国际儿童脑肿瘤治疗

Types

症状

儿童脑肿瘤的体征和症状差异很大,具体取决于脑瘤的类型、大小、位置和生长速度。由于有些体征和症状与其他疾病的症状较为相似,所以可能不易被察觉。

儿童脑肿瘤的一些常见症状包括:

  • 头痛,可能会变得更频繁和更严重
  • 感觉头部压力增大
  • 不明原因的恶心或呕吐
  • 突然出现视力问题(如复视)

根据肿瘤所在位置,可能出现的其他体征和症状包括:

  • 婴儿颅骨出现较丰满的柔软区(囟门)
  • 癫痫发作,尤其是无癫痫发作史的患者
  • 异常眼球运动
  • 言语不清
  • 吞咽困难
  • 食欲不振;或婴儿进食困难
  • 难以保持平衡
  • 行走困难
  • 一条胳膊或腿变得无力或失去知觉
  • 面部一侧无力或下垂
  • 意识模糊和易怒
  • 记忆力问题
  • 性格或行为发生改变
  • 听力问题

何时就诊

如果您对孩子出现的任何体征和症状感到担心,请与预约您孩子的医生就诊。

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病因

大多数情况下,导致儿童脑肿瘤的确切原因不明。

儿童脑肿瘤一般是原发性脑瘤(起源于大脑或其附近组织的肿瘤)。当正常细胞的 DNA 出现错误(突变)时,原发性脑肿瘤开始出现。这些突变允许细胞生长并以更快的速度分裂,然后继续生长,并导致健康细胞死亡。这样会产生大量异常细胞,从而形成肿瘤。

儿童可能发生许多不同种类的脑肿瘤(包括恶性或非恶性肿瘤)。

风险因素

在大多数原发性脑肿瘤患儿中,形成肿瘤的原因尚不清楚。但是,某些类型的脑肿瘤(例如髓母细胞瘤或室管膜瘤)在儿童中更为常见。对于某些儿童,有脑肿瘤家族史或遗传综合征家族史会增加患上脑部肿瘤的风险,不过这比较少见。

在 Mayo Clinic 治疗

June 30, 2021
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