概述

梅尼埃病是一种内耳问题,可能导致头晕发作(眩晕)和听力减退。梅尼埃病在大多数情况下都只会影响一只耳朵。

梅尼埃病可能发生在任何年龄,但通常在 40 到 60 岁之间开始,并被认为是一种影响一生的状况。但一些治疗方法可能帮助缓解症状,减轻对您生活的长期影响。

症状

梅尼埃病的症状包括:

  • 经常头晕。有种晕眩的感觉,这种感觉会突然出现和消失。眩晕的发作可能毫无预兆,通常持续 20 分钟至 12 小时,但不超过 24 小时。严重的眩晕可造成恶心。
  • 听力减退。梅尼埃病造成的听力减退可能时有时无,尤其是在早期。随着时间推移,听力减退可能持续很长时间,而且不会好转。
  • 耳鸣。耳鸣是指耳内出现鸣响。用“耳鸣”这一术语描述耳中出现鸣响、嗡嗡、轰鸣、口哨或嘶嘶的声音。
  • 耳中有充盈感。梅尼埃病患者往往感觉耳内受压(耳胀)。

眩晕发作后,症状会有所好转,一段时间后可能消失。随着时间的推移,眩晕发作的次数可能减少。

何时就诊

如果您出现梅尼埃病的症状,请就医。其他疾病也可能引起这些问题。因此需要尽快找出导致症状的原因。

病因

梅尼埃病的病因尚未明确。梅尼埃病的症状可能是由于内耳(称为内淋巴)有过多液体。但目前尚不清楚导致内耳积液的原因。

影响这些液体的原因可能导致梅尼埃病,其中包括:

  • 液体引流不畅。这可能是由于阻塞或耳形不规则所导致。
  • 自身免疫性疾病。
  • 病毒感染。
  • 遗传因素。

由于尚未发现单一病因,梅尼埃病可能由多种病因所致。

风险因素

Meniere's disease is most common in people ages 40 to 60. Females may have a slightly higher risk than men.

You may have a higher chance of getting Meniere's disease if someone in your family has had the condition.

You may have a higher risk of Meniere's disease if you have an autoimmune disorder.

并发症

梅尼埃病最棘手的并发症包括:

  • 意外眩晕发作。
  • 可能导致听力长期丧失。

这种疾病可能随时发作,因此令人感到焦虑和紧张。

眩晕会使您失去平衡,这会增加跌倒和发生意外的风险。

Jan. 03, 2024
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