Descripción general

El cáncer de paladar blando es un tipo de cáncer que se origina en las células del paladar blando. El paladar blando está ubicado en la sección superior de la parte posterior de la boca, detrás de los dientes.

El cáncer de paladar blando se considera un tipo de cáncer de garganta. Los médicos tratan el cáncer de paladar blando de forma similar a como tratan otros tipos de cáncer de garganta, por lo general, mediante una combinación de cirugía, radioterapia y quimioterapia.

Síntomas

Some signs and symptoms of soft palate cancer can include the following:

  • Bleeding
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Difficulty speaking
  • Bad breath
  • Mouth pain
  • Sores in your mouth that won't heal
  • Loose teeth
  • Pain when you swallow
  • Weight loss
  • Ear pain
  • Swelling in your neck that may hurt
  • White patches in your mouth that won't go away

When to see a doctor

Talk to your doctor or dentist about any persistent signs and symptoms that worry you.

Causas

Soft palate cancer forms when a genetic mutation turns normal, healthy cells into abnormal cells. Healthy cells grow and multiply at a set rate, eventually dying at a set time. Abnormal cells grow and multiply out of control, and they don't die. The accumulating abnormal cells form a mass (tumor). Cancer cells invade nearby tissues and can separate from an initial tumor to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

Factores de riesgo

Things that may increase the risk of soft palate cancer include:

  • Using tobacco
  • Drinking alcohol
  • Being infected with human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • Taking medications that suppress your immune system

If you use tobacco and drink alcohol, your risk is even higher.

Prevención

Ways to reduce your risk of soft palate cancer include:

  • Don't use tobacco. If you don't use tobacco, don't start. If you currently use tobacco of any kind, talk with your doctor about strategies to help you quit.
  • Limit alcohol if you choose to drink. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women and up to two drinks a day for men.
  • Get regular dental care. During your appointment, your dentist will check your mouth for signs of cancer and precancerous changes.
  • Consider the HPV vaccine. Receiving a vaccination to prevent HPV infection may reduce your risk of HPV-related cancers, such as soft palate cancer. Ask your doctor whether an HPV vaccine is appropriate for you.

Cáncer de paladar blando - atención en Mayo Clinic

Feb. 05, 2019
References
  1. AskMayoExpert. Head and neck cancers (Cáncer de cabeza y cuello). Rochester, Minn.: Fundación Mayo para la Educación e Investigación Médica; 2015.
  2. Flint PW, et al. Malignant neoplasms of the oropharynx (Neoplasias malignas de la orofaringe). En: Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery (Otorrinolaringología de Cummings: cirugía de cabeza y cuello). 6.ª ed. Filadelfia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Último acceso: 1 de julio de 2016.
  3. Head and neck cancers (Cáncer de cabeza y cuello). Fort Washington, Pa.: National Comprehensive Cancer Network (Red Nacional Integral del Cáncer). http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp. Último acceso: 1 de julio de 2016.
  4. Cook AJ. EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. 30 de marzo de 2016.