概述

软腭癌起源于软腭细胞。软腭位于口腔后部(牙齿后)的上半部分。

软腭癌是喉癌的类型之一。医生会采用与其他类型喉癌相似的方法来治疗软腭癌,通常是结合使用手术、放射疗法和化疗。

症状

软腭癌的一些体征和症状可能包括:

  • 出血
  • 吞咽困难
  • 难以入睡
  • 口臭
  • 口腔疼痛
  • 无法愈合的口腔溃疡
  • 牙齿松动
  • 吞咽疼痛
  • 体重减轻
  • 耳痛
  • 可能会疼痛的颈部肿胀
  • 不会消失的口腔内白斑

何时就诊

如果有任何持续的体征和症状令您担心,请向您的医生或牙科医生咨询。

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病因

当基因突变将正常的健康细胞转变为异常细胞时,就会形成软腭癌。健康细胞以设定的速率生长和增殖,最终在设定时间死亡。异常细胞的生长和增殖不受控制,也不会死亡。聚集的异常细胞会形成团块(肿瘤)。癌细胞会入侵附近的组织,并可能与最初的肿瘤分离,扩散到身体的其他部位(转移)。

风险因素

可能增加患软腭癌风险的因素包括:

  • 吸烟
  • 饮酒
  • 感染人类乳突病毒 (HPV)
  • 服用抑制免疫系统的药物

如果您吸烟和饮酒,该风险会更高。

预防

降低软腭癌风险的方式包括:

  • 不要使用烟草。如果您不使用烟草,那么请勿开始。如果您目前使用任何种类的烟草,请咨询医生可以帮您戒烟的策略。
  • 如果要饮酒,请控制饮酒量。如果要饮酒,需确保适度。对于健康成人,女性每天最多喝一杯,男性每天最多喝两杯。
  • 定期进行牙齿保健。在就诊期间,牙医会检查您的口腔是否存在癌症和癌前病变迹象。
  • 考虑接种 HPV 疫苗。通过接种疫苗来预防 HPV 感染,可降低患 HPV 相关癌症(例如,软腭癌)的风险。咨询医生您是否适合接种 HPV 疫苗。

在 Mayo Clinic 治疗

Aug. 31, 2021
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