Warding off germs and infection
What's the best way to stay disease-free? Prevent infections. You can prevent infection through simple tactics, such as washing your hands regularly, being careful with food and water, getting vaccinations, and taking appropriate medications.
- Hand-washing. Often overlooked, hand-washing is one of the easiest and most effective ways to protect yourself from germs and most infections. Wash your hands thoroughly before preparing or eating food, after coughing or sneezing, after changing a diaper, and after using the toilet. When soap and water aren't available, alcohol-based hand-sanitizing gels can offer protection.
- Vaccines. Vaccination is your best line of defense for certain diseases. As researchers understand more about what causes disease, the list of vaccine-preventable diseases continues to grow. Many vaccines are given in childhood, but adults still need to be routinely vaccinated to prevent some illnesses, such as tetanus and influenza.
- Medicines. Some medicines offer short-term protection from particular germs. For example, taking an anti-parasitic medication might keep you from contracting malaria if you travel to or live in a high-risk area.
When to seek medical care
Seek medical care if you suspect that you have an infection and you have experienced any of the following:
- An animal or human bite
- Difficulty breathing
- A cough lasting longer than a week
- Periods of rapid heartbeat
- A rash, especially if it's accompanied by a fever
- Blurred vision or other difficulty seeing
- Persistent vomiting
- An unusual or severe headache
Your doctor can perform diagnostic tests to find out if you're infected, the seriousness of the infection and how best to treat that infection.
March 08, 2017
See more In-depth
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- Levinson W. Bacteria compared with other microorganisms. In: Review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology. 14th ed. New York, N. Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2016. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed Dec. 2, 2016.
- Carroll KC, et al., eds. Growth, survival, and death of microorganisms. In: Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg's Medical Microbiology. 27th ed. New York, N. Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2016. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed Dec. 2, 2016.
- Stopping the spread of germs at home, work and school. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/stopgerms.htm. Accessed Dec. 2, 2016.
- In search of a germ theory equivalent of chronic disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2012/11_0301.htm. Accessed Dec. 5, 2016.