Medications and supplements that can raise your blood pressure
From pain medications to stimulants, know which drugs and supplements can affect your blood pressure.
By Mayo Clinic Staff
Some prescription and over-the-counter medications, as well as supplements and other substances, can raise your blood pressure. These substances also can interfere with medications intended to lower your blood pressure.
Here are some medications, supplements and other substances that can increase your blood pressure. If you're using any of these substances and are worried about the effect it could have on your blood pressure, talk to your doctor.
Certain pain and anti-inflammatory medications can cause you to retain water, creating kidney problems and increasing your blood pressure. Examples include:
- Indomethacin (Indocin, others)
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including naproxen sodium (Aleve, Anaprox) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others)
- Piroxicam (Feldene)
Have your blood pressure checked regularly. Talk to your doctor about which pain medication is best for you. If you must continue taking a pain medication that increases your blood pressure, your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes or additional medication to control your blood pressure.
Antidepressants work by changing your body's response to brain chemicals, including serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, that affect your mood. These chemicals may also cause your blood pressure to increase. Examples of antidepressants that can raise your blood pressure include:
- Venlafaxine (Effexor XR)
- Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
- Tricyclic antidepressants
- Fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem, others)
If you take antidepressants, have your blood pressure checked regularly. If your blood pressure increases or isn't well-controlled, ask your doctor about alternatives to these medications. Your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes or additional medications to control your high blood pressure.
Hormonal birth control
Birth control pills and other hormonal birth control devices contain hormones that may increase your blood pressure by narrowing smaller blood vessels. Virtually all birth control pills, patches and vaginal rings come with warnings that high blood pressure may be a side effect. The risk of high blood pressure is greater if you're older than age 35, overweight or a smoker.
Not all women will have increased blood pressure from using hormonal birth control, but if you're worried, have your blood pressure checked at least every six to 12 months. If you already have high blood pressure, consider using a different form of birth control. While nearly all birth control pills can raise your blood pressure, your blood pressure may be less likely to increase if you use a birth control pill or device that contains a lower dose of estrogen.
The role caffeine plays in blood pressure is still debatable. Consuming 200 to 300 milligrams of caffeine can temporarily cause a spike in your blood pressure, but it's unclear whether the effect is temporary or long lasting.
Caffeine may temporarily increase your blood pressure by blocking a hormone that keeps your blood vessels widened, allowing blood to easily flow through them. In addition, caffeine may cause you to produce more cortisol and adrenaline, which makes your blood flow faster, thus increasing your blood pressure. There isn't enough evidence to prove that caffeine raises your blood pressure long term.
Examples of caffeine-containing medications and products include:
- Caffeine pills (Vivarin, others)
- Coffee, energy drinks and other beverages
Some studies suggest that coffee may contain a substance that lowers blood pressure, thus counteracting any effects from caffeine. In addition, the caffeine content of coffee can vary widely, so it's difficult to say how many cups of coffee you can drink a day.
To see if caffeine raises your blood pressure, check your blood pressure about 30 minutes after drinking a cup of coffee or another caffeinated beverage you regularly drink. If your blood pressure increases by five to 10 points, you may be sensitive to the blood pressure raising effects of caffeine.
Feb. 11, 2016
- Grossman A, et al. Drug-induced hypertension: An unappreciated cause of secondary hypertension. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2015;763:15.
- Faselis C, et al. Common secondary causes of resistant hypertension and rational for treatment. International Journal of Hypertension. 2011; 236239. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3057025/. Accessed Jan. 25, 2016.
- Textor S. Evaluation of secondary hypertension. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 6, 2016.
- AskMayoExpert. Hypertension. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014.
- Guessous I, et al. Caffeine and blood pressure. Hypertension. 2015;65:691.
- Guessous I, et al. Blood pressure in relation to coffee and caffeine consumption. Current Hypertension Reports. 2014;16:468.
- Over-the-counter medications and high blood pressure. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/PreventionTreatmentofHighBloodPressure/Over-the-Counter-Medications_UCM_303245_Article.jsp. Accessed Jan. 6, 2016.
- Jalili J, et al. Herbal products that may contribute to hypertension. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 2013;131:168.
- Viera AJ, et al. Diagnosis of secondary hypertension: An age-based approach. American Family Physician. 2010;82:1471.
- Caffeine may perk up your blood vessels. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/News/Global/SimpleScience/Caffeine-may-perk-up-your-blood-vessels_UCM_458540_Article.jsp#.VphWUPkrLIU. Accessed Jan. 10, 2016.
- Sheps SG (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 15, 2016.
- Armstrong C. ACOG releases guidelines on hormonal contraceptives in women with coexisting medical conditions. American Family Physician. 2007;75:1252.