History of vaccine requirements and vaccine research highlights From 1855 to 2021 Learn about the history of major vaccine requirements in the U.S. and highlights of vaccine research at Mayo Clinic. 1855 Massachusetts is the first state to require that children have a smallpox vaccine before going to school to prevent the spread of smallpox in schools. 1900s Many U.S. states require children to have vaccines, such as the smallpox vaccine, before going to school for the first time (before kindergarten). 1963 Twenty U.S. states require (mandate) children to have several vaccines before going to school for the first time. 1977 The U.S. begins a childhood vaccination initiative to increase the number of vaccinated children in the country to 90% within two years. 2020 Show more Show more about the childhood vaccination initiative in the U.S. that began in 1977. 1980 In the U.S., all states have vaccine-related laws that pertain to children before they go to school. Some states require certain vaccines. Show more Show more about U.S. states with vaccine-related laws in 1980. 1998 By 1998-1999, all but four U.S. states have vaccine requirements (mandates) for students entering kindergarten through 12th grade. Show more Show more about U.S. states with vaccine requirements for students before they go to school or college from 1998 to 1990. 2020 A U.S. national initiative called Healthy People 2020 makes goals regarding vaccination and infectious disease control. Show more Show more about the U.S. national initiative regarding vaccination and infectious disease control. 2021 Mayo Clinic researchers continue to study many aspects of vaccines. Research areas include … Show more Show more about Mayo Clinic research in infectious diseases and vaccines. Close 1977 The U.S. begins a childhood vaccination initiative to increase the number of vaccinated children in the country to 90% within two years. By 1980, vaccination levels rise among U.S. children going to school for the first time. Vaccination levels go up to 96% for measles, rubella and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), 96% for polio, and 92% for mumps. Learn more Childhood vaccines: Tough questions, straight answers Facts about vaccines and what people need to know Mayo Clinic Minute: Catching up on childhood vaccinations Vaccination schedule: Why so many so fast? Foreseeing the Future of Vaccines Close 1980 In the U.S., all states have vaccine-related laws that pertain to children before they go to school. Some states require certain vaccines. Other states allow county public health boards to decide which vaccines are required. Close 1998 By 1998-1999, all but four U.S. states have vaccine requirements (mandates) for students entering kindergarten through 12th grade. Thirty states have vaccine requirements for students going to college for the first time. Many states allow religious or philosophical exceptions (exemptions) from vaccine requirements. Close 2020 A U.S. national initiative called Healthy People 2020 makes goals regarding vaccination and infectious disease control. Vaccines are part of the goal because within each group of people born during the same period of time (birth cohort), routine vaccines have saved 33,000 lives, prevented 14 million cases of disease and reduced health care costs by $9.9 billion. Learn more Vaccines for adults: Which do you need? Close 2021 Mayo Clinic researchers continue to study many aspects of vaccines. Research areas include how genes respond to vaccines; how the body responds to vaccines; how people determine whether to get vaccinated; development of personalized vaccines based on increased understanding of immune responses of genes and the immune system; and new vaccine development. Mayo researchers have participated in research and trials in vaccines for HPV, smallpox and anthrax. 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