Risk factors for polymyalgia rheumatica include:
Sept. 17, 2015
- Age. Polymyalgia rheumatica affects older adults almost exclusively. The average age at onset of the disease is 73.
- Sex. Women are about two times more likely to develop the disorder.
- Race and geographic region. Polymyalgia rheumatica is most common among whites in northern European populations.
- Kermani TA, et al. Polymyalgia rheumatica. The Lancet. 2013;381:63.
- AskMayoExpert. Polymyalgia rheumatica. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015.
- Bhaskar D, et al. 2012 provisional classification criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica: A European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology collaborative initiative. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 2012;64:943.
- Kermani TA, et al. Advances and challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of polymyalgia rheumatica. Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease. 2014;6:8.
- Wyand CM, et al. Giant-cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. New England Journal of Medicine. 2014;371:50.
- Salvarani C, et al. Clinical features of polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis. Nature Reviews Rheumatology. 2012;8:509.
- Matteson EL, et al. Diagnosis and assessment of polymyalgia rheumatica: A step forward. Aging Health. 2012;8:395.
- Aikawa NE, et al. Anti-TNF therapy for polymyalgia rheumatica: Report of 99 cases and review of the literature. Clinical Rheumatology. 2012;31:575.
- Glucocorticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. American College of Rheumatology. http://www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/patients/diseases_and_conditions/gi-osteoporosis.asp. Accessed May 1, 2015.
- Saag KG, et al. Major side effects of systemic glucocorticoids. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 7, 2015.
- Colditz GA. Healthy diet in adults. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 18, 2015.
- Dejaco C, et al. 2015 recommendations for the management of polymyalgia rheumatic. Arthritis & Rheumatology. 2015;67:2569.