HPV infections are common. Risk factors for HPV infection include:
Sep. 16, 2014
- Number of sexual partners. The greater your number of sexual partners, the more likely you are to contract a genital HPV infection. Having sex with a partner who has had multiple sex partners also increases your risk.
- Age. Common warts occur most often in children. While plantar warts may occur in adults, they're more likely to initially surface on adolescents or young adults. Genital warts occur most often in adolescents and young adults.
- Weakened immune systems. People who have weakened immune systems are at greater risk of HPV infections. Immune systems can be weakened by HIV/AIDS or by immune system-suppressing drugs used after organ transplants.
- Damaged skin. Areas of skin that have been punctured or opened are more prone to develop common warts.
- Personal contact. Touching someone's warts or not wearing protection before contacting surfaces that have been exposed to HPV — such as public showers or swimming pools — may increase your risk of HPV infection.
- Markle W, et al. Sexually transmitted diseases. Primary Care Clinics: Office Practice. 2013;40:557.
- Longo DL, et al. Harrison's Online. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=4. Accessed July 8, 2014.
- Castle PE. The life cycle, natural history, and immunology of human papillomaviruses. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Warts. The Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/dermatologic_disorders/viral_skin_diseases/warts.html. Accessed July 10, 2014.
- Genital HPV infection: Fact sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/std/HPV/STDFact-HPV.htm. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- New guidelines for cervical cancer screening. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. https://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/pfs004.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20140719T1123120163. Accessed June 21, 2014.
- Reichman R. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Goldman L, et al. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Bolognia JL, et al., eds. Dermatology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Mulhem E, et al. Treatment of nongenital cutaneous warts. American Family Physician. 2011;84:288.
- HPV vaccines. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/vaccine.html. Accessed July 11, 2014.
- Muller LR, et al. Prophylactic papillomavirus vaccines. Clinics in Dermatology. 2014;32:235.
- Crowe E, et al. Effectiveness of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine for the prevention of cervical abnormalities: Case-control study nested within a population based screening programme in Australia. BMJ. 2014;348:g1458.
- Luna J, et al. Long-term follow-up observation of the safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness of Gardasil in adult women. PLoS One. 2014;8:e83431.
- Nsouli-Maktabi H, et al. Incidence of genital warts among U.S. service members before and after the introduction of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine. MSMR. 2013;20:17.
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