Osteoarthritis

What is it?

Osteoarthritis is a joint disorder characterized by the breakdown of joint cartilage. It may affect any joint in your body. People who have type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of osteoarthritis, likely due to obesity — a risk factor for type 2 diabetes — rather than to the diabetes itself.

What are the symptoms?

Osteoarthritis may cause joint pain, swelling and stiffness, as well as loss of joint flexibility or movement.

How is it treated?

Treatment involves exercising and maintaining a healthy weight, caring for and resting the affected joint, medications for pain, and surgery in rare cases. Complementary treatments — such as acupuncture and massage — also may be helpful.

DISH

What is it?

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), also called Forestier disease, is a hardening of tendons and ligaments that commonly affects the spine. DISH may be associated with type 2 diabetes, perhaps due to insulin or insulin-like growth factors that promote new bone growth.

What are the symptoms?

You may experience pain, stiffness or decreased range of motion in any affected part of your body. If DISH affects your spine, you may experience stiffness in your back or neck.

How is it treated?

Treatment involves managing symptoms, usually with pain relievers (Tylenol, others), and in rare cases may require surgery to remove bone that has grown due to the condition.

Dupuytren contracture

What is it?

Dupuytren contracture is a deformity in which one or more fingers are bent toward the palm. It's caused by thickening and scarring of connective tissue in the palm of the hand and in the fingers. Dupuytren contracture is common in people who have had diabetes for a long time, perhaps due to the metabolic changes related to diabetes.

What are the symptoms?

You may notice thickening of the skin on the palm of your hand. Eventually, you may not be able to fully straighten one or more fingers.

How is it treated?

If you have pain, a steroid injection may help by reducing inflammation. Surgery, collagenase enzyme injection or a minimally invasive technique called aponeurotomy to break apart the thick tissue are other options if the condition prevents you from being able to grasp objects.

Frozen shoulder

What is it?

Frozen shoulder is a condition characterized by shoulder pain and limited range of motion. It typically affects only one shoulder. Although the cause is often unknown, diabetes is a common risk factor.

What are the symptoms?

Frozen shoulder causes pain or tenderness with shoulder movement, stiffness of the joint, and decreased range of motion.

How is it treated?

If started early, aggressive physical therapy can help preserve movement and range of motion in the joint.

May. 13, 2014 See more In-depth