Self-management

Prevention

Careful hygiene is the best prevention against CMV. You can take these precautions:

  • Wash your hands often. Use soap and water for 15 to 20 seconds, especially if you have contact with young children or their diapers, drool or other oral secretions. This is especially important if the children attend child care.
  • Avoid contact with tears and saliva when you kiss a child. Instead of kissing a child on the lips, for instance, kiss on the forehead. This is especially important if you're pregnant.
  • Avoid sharing food or drinking out of the same glass as others. Sharing glasses and kitchen utensils can spread the CMV virus.
  • Be careful with disposable items. When disposing of diapers, tissues and other items that have been contaminated with bodily fluids, be careful not to touch your hands to your face until after thoroughly washing your hands.
  • Clean toys and countertops. Clean any surfaces that come in contact with children's urine or saliva.
  • Practice safe sex. Wear a condom during sexual contact to prevent spreading the CMV virus through semen and vaginal fluids.

If you have a compromised immune system, you may benefit from taking antiviral medication to prevent CMV disease.

Experimental vaccines are being tested for women of childbearing age. These vaccines may be useful in preventing CMV infection in mothers and infants, and reducing the chance that babies born to women who are infected while pregnant will develop disabilities.

April 12, 2017
References
  1. Bennett JE, et al., eds. Cytomegalovirus (CMV). In: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. https://clinicalkey.com. Accessed Dec. 12, 2016.
  2. Goldman L, et al., eds. Cytomegalovirus. In: Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Dec. 12, 2016.
  3. Friel TJ. Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of cytomegalovirus in immunocompetent adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 12, 2016.
  4. Kliegman RM, et al. Cytomegalovirus. In: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2016. http://clinicalkey.com. Accessed Dec. 12, 2016.
  5. Bialas KM, et al. Perinatal cytomegalovirus and varicella zoster virus infections: Epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. Clinics in Perinatology. 2015;42:61.
  6. Demmler-Harrison GJ. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: Clinical features and diagnosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 12, 2016.
  7. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and congenital CMV infection: Babies born with CMV (congenital CMV infection). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/cmv/congenital-infection.html. Accessed Dec. 13, 2016.
  8. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and congenital CMV infection: About CMV. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/cmv/overview.html. Accessed Dec. 13, 2016.
  9. Sheffield JS, et al. Cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 12, 2016.
  10. Feldman DM, et al. Toxoplasmosis, parvovirus, and cytomegalovirus in pregnancy. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine. 2016;36:407.
  11. Caliendo AM. Approach to the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 12, 2016.
  12. Demmler-Harrison GJ. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: Management and outcomes. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 12, 2016.