Risk factors for antiphospholipid syndrome include:
- Having an autoimmune condition, such as systemic lupus erythematosus or Sjogren's syndrome.
- Having certain infections, such as syphilis, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C or Lyme disease.
- Taking certain medications, such as hydralazine for high blood pressure, the heart rhythm-regulating medication quinidine, the anti-seizure medication phenytoin (Dilantin) and the antibiotic amoxicillin.
- Having a family member with antiphospholipid syndrome.
Risk factors for developing symptoms
It's possible to have the antibodies associated with antiphospholipid syndrome without ever developing signs or symptoms. However, if you have these antibodies, your risk of developing blood clots increases particularly if you:
Apr. 15, 2014
- Become pregnant
- Remain immobile for a period of time (such as when you're on bed rest or sitting during a long airline flight)
- Have surgery
- Smoke cigarettes
- Take oral contraceptives
- Have high cholesterol and triglycerides levels
- Giannakopoulos B, et al. Pathogenesis of the antiphospholipid syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine. 2013;368:1033.
- What is antiphospholipid antibody syndrome? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/aps/. Accessed Dec. 2, 2013.
- Learning about antiphospholipid syndrome. National Human Genome Research Institute. http://www.genome.gov/pfv.cfm?pageID=17516396. Accessed Dec. 4, 2013.
- Papadakis MA, et al. Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2013. 52nd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2013. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=1. Accessed Dec. 4, 2013.
- Bermas BL, et al. Pathogenesis of the antiphospholipid syndrome. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 5, 2013.
- Donadini MP, et al. Antiphospholipid syndrome: A challenging hypercoagulable state with systemic manifestations. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America. 2010;24:669.
- Arnaud L, et al. Efficacy of aspirin for the primary prevention of thrombosis in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies: An international and collaborative meta-analysis. Autoimmunity Reviews. 2013 [In Press]. Accessed Dec. 4, 2013.
- Bermas BL, et al. Treatment of the antiphospholipid syndrome. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 4, 2013.
- Lockshin MD. Pregnancy and antiphospholipid syndrome. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 2013;69:585.
- Wijetilleka S, et al. Novel insights into pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome. Current Opinion in Rheumatology. 2012;24:473.
- Arachchillage AJ, et al. Use of new oral anticoagulants in antiphospholipid syndrome. Current Rheumatology Report. 2013;15:331.
- Blood thinner pills: Your guide to using them safely. Rockville, Md.: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. http://www.ahrq.gov/consumer/btpills.htm. Accessed Dec. 5, 2013.
- Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Institute of Medicine. http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2001/Dietary-Reference-Intakes-for-Vitamin-A-Vitamin-K-Arsenic-Boron-Chromium-Copper-Iodine-Iron-Manganese-Molybdenum-Nickel-Silicon-Vanadium-and-Zinc.aspx. Accessed Dec. 5, 2013.
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