Depending on which organ is affected by a blood clot and how severe the obstruction of blood flow to that organ is, untreated antiphospholipid syndrome can lead to permanent damage or death. Complications may include:
Apr. 15, 2014
- Kidney failure. This can result from decreased blood flow to your kidneys.
- Stroke. Decreased blood flow to a part of your brain can cause a stroke, which can result in permanent neurological damage, such as partial paralysis and loss of speech (aphasia).
- Cardiovascular problems. If a clot forms in your leg (deep vein thrombosis), the clot can damage the valves in the veins in your affected leg, which normally serve to keep the blood flowing upward to your heart. This may result in a condition called chronic venous insufficiency, which causes chronic swelling and discoloration in your lower legs, because of the impaired blood flow upward to your heart. Another possible complication is heart damage.
- Lung problems. Complications related to your lungs may include high blood pressure in your lungs (pulmonary hypertension) and pulmonary embolism.
- Pregnancy complications. These may include miscarriages, stillbirths, premature delivery and high blood pressure during pregnancy (preeclampsia).
- Giannakopoulos B, et al. Pathogenesis of the antiphospholipid syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine. 2013;368:1033.
- What is antiphospholipid antibody syndrome? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/aps/. Accessed Dec. 2, 2013.
- Learning about antiphospholipid syndrome. National Human Genome Research Institute. http://www.genome.gov/pfv.cfm?pageID=17516396. Accessed Dec. 4, 2013.
- Papadakis MA, et al. Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2013. 52nd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2013. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=1. Accessed Dec. 4, 2013.
- Bermas BL, et al. Pathogenesis of the antiphospholipid syndrome. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 5, 2013.
- Donadini MP, et al. Antiphospholipid syndrome: A challenging hypercoagulable state with systemic manifestations. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America. 2010;24:669.
- Arnaud L, et al. Efficacy of aspirin for the primary prevention of thrombosis in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies: An international and collaborative meta-analysis. Autoimmunity Reviews. 2013 [In Press]. Accessed Dec. 4, 2013.
- Bermas BL, et al. Treatment of the antiphospholipid syndrome. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 4, 2013.
- Lockshin MD. Pregnancy and antiphospholipid syndrome. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 2013;69:585.
- Wijetilleka S, et al. Novel insights into pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of antiphospholipid syndrome. Current Opinion in Rheumatology. 2012;24:473.
- Arachchillage AJ, et al. Use of new oral anticoagulants in antiphospholipid syndrome. Current Rheumatology Report. 2013;15:331.
- Blood thinner pills: Your guide to using them safely. Rockville, Md.: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. http://www.ahrq.gov/consumer/btpills.htm. Accessed Dec. 5, 2013.
- Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Institute of Medicine. http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2001/Dietary-Reference-Intakes-for-Vitamin-A-Vitamin-K-Arsenic-Boron-Chromium-Copper-Iodine-Iron-Manganese-Molybdenum-Nickel-Silicon-Vanadium-and-Zinc.aspx. Accessed Dec. 5, 2013.
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