概述

睾丸癌的发生部位是位于阴囊内的睾丸(精巢),阴囊是阴茎下部松弛的囊状皮肤。睾丸能够产生雄性激素和用于生殖的精液。

睾丸癌比其他类型的癌症罕见。但睾丸癌是在美国 15 至 35 岁男性中最常见的癌症。

睾丸癌治愈率非常高,即使癌症已经扩散到睾丸以外的部位。鉴于睾丸癌的类型和阶段,您可能接受一种治疗或联合治疗。

症状

睾丸癌的体征和症状包括:

  • 任一侧睾丸出现肿块或肿大
  • 阴囊有沉重感
  • 腹部或腹股沟隐隐作痛
  • 阴囊突然积液
  • 睾丸或阴囊出现疼痛或不适
  • 胸部增大或有压痛
  • 背痛

癌症通常只侵袭一侧睾丸。

何时就诊

如果您发现睾丸或腹股沟有任何疼痛、肿胀或肿块,尤其是这些体征和症状持续时间超过两周,请就医。

病因

在大多数病例中,睾丸癌的病因尚不明确。

医生只知道,当睾丸中的健康细胞发生改变时,就会发生睾丸癌。健康的细胞会以有序的方式生长和分裂,以确保身体机能保持正常。但有时一些细胞会出现异常,导致这种生长失去控制,即这些细胞即使在不需要新细胞时也会继续分裂。不断积聚的细胞会在睾丸中形成肿块。

几乎所有的睾丸癌都开始于生殖细胞,即睾丸中产生未成熟精子的细胞。导致生殖细胞异常并发展为癌症的原因尚不清楚。

风险因素

可能增加睾丸癌的风险因素包括:

  • 隐睾(隐睾症)。胎儿发育时睾丸在腹部形成,通常出生前降至阴囊。睾丸从未下降的男性比睾丸正常下降的男性患睾丸癌的风险更大。即使通过手术将睾丸移至阴囊,风险仍会升高。

    尽管如此,大多数患睾丸癌的男性并没有隐睾病史。

  • 睾丸发育异常。导致睾丸发育异常的状况,如先天性睾丸发育不全综合征,可能增加您患睾丸癌的风险。
  • 家族史。如果您的家人患有睾丸癌,您可能有更高的风险。
  • 年龄。睾丸癌影响青少年和更年轻的男性,特别是 15 到 35 岁之间的男性。但是,任何年龄段都可能得这个病。
  • 种族。睾丸癌在白人男性中比在黑人男性中更常见。

预防

睾丸癌无法预防。

一些医生会建议定期自查睾丸,以求在睾丸癌早期尽早识别睾丸癌。但医生们没有达成共识。如果您不确定睾丸自查是否适合自己,请咨询您的医生。

Testicular cancer screening

Some health care providers recommend regular testicle self-exams. During a testicular self-exam you feel your testicles for any lumps or other changes.

Not all health care providers agree with this recommendation. There's no research to show that self-exams can lower the risk of dying of testicular cancer. Even when it is found at a late stage, testicular cancer is likely to be cured.

Still, you might find it helpful to become aware of the usual feel of your testicles. You can do this by doing a testicular self-exam. If you notice any changes that last longer than two weeks, make an appointment with your health care provider.

在 Mayo Clinic 治疗

April 24, 2020

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