概述

乳房肿块是发生于乳房里的组织增生物。在乳房发现肿块可能让人害怕并引起焦虑。大多数乳房肿块不会带来危险,但请务必就医并及时接受医生的评估。

症状

乳房组织通常会感到有肿块或结块,并且月经期可能会伴有时有时无的压痛。

如果您有基础性乳房疾病,您可能会注意到对乳房的正常感觉发生变化,例如:

  • 圆滑、结实的乳房肿块
  • 可在皮肤下轻松移动的大而结实的肿块
  • 坚硬、形状不规则的乳房肿块
  • 皮肤发红或像橘子一样凹陷
  • 乳房大小或形状的变化
  • 液体从您的乳头溢出

病因

引起乳房肿块的原因可能包括:

  • 乳腺囊肿。如发现光滑质硬的圆形乳房肿块,它们可能是囊肿(乳导管因充满液体而扩张)。乳腺囊肿有大有小,且周围的乳腺组织可能有触痛感。乳腺囊肿可能会在经期开始前出现,之后变小或消失。
  • 乳腺纤维囊性变。如果出现乳腺纤维囊性变,您可能会感到乳房发胀,部分区域出现肿块或呈脊状。乳房可能会感到疼痛。许多女性会出现与月经周期有关的乳腺纤维囊性变,症状往往在经期过后得到改善。
  • 纤维腺瘤。纤维腺瘤是实体良性乳腺肿瘤,光滑且触摸时容易在皮肤下移动。纤维腺瘤可能会变大。可能与纤维腺瘤生长相关的因素包括怀孕、使用激素治疗或月经。
  • 损伤和感染。乳腺组织或邻近神经严重损伤可能引起乳房肿块。医生将此症状描述为脂肪坏死。感染液体(脓肿)在乳腺组织中蓄积也可能引起乳房肿块,导致局部乳房疼痛和皮肤发炎。
  • 乳腺癌。无痛、质硬、形状不规则且不同于周围乳腺组织的乳房肿块可能是乳腺癌。覆盖肿块的皮肤可能发红,像橘子皮一样不平整或有凹陷。乳房大小和形状可能会发生变化,或者您可能会注意到乳头有溢液。

医生评估可确定您可能需要做哪几种检查,以及乳房肿块类型。

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