概述

胃灼热是指胸部(胸骨后)出现的灼热痛。疼痛通常在饭后、晚间或平躺或弯腰时加重。

偶尔出现胃灼热是很常见的,不需要惊慌。大部分人可以通过调整生活方式和使用非处方药自行管理胃灼热的不适感。

如果胃灼热发作更频繁,或者已经干扰您的日常生活,就可能是需要就医的更严重疾病的症状。

症状

胃灼热的症状包括:

  • 胸部灼热痛,通常发生在进食后,也可能发生在夜间
  • 躺下或弯腰时疼痛加剧
  • 口中有苦味或酸味

何时就诊

如果您遇到严重的胸部疼痛或压迫感,尤其是伴有其他症状和体征,如手臂或下巴疼痛或呼吸困难,请立即寻求帮助。胸部疼痛可能是心脏病发作的症状。

如果出现以下情况,请与医生约诊:

  • 胃灼热一周出现两次以上
  • 尽管使用了非处方药,症状依然存在
  • 吞咽困难
  • 持续恶心或呕吐
  • 因食欲不佳或进食困难而导致体重减轻

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病因

胃酸反流进入食管(将食物从口腔运送到胃的管道)时,就会发生胃灼热。

正常情况下,当您吞咽时,食管底部(食管下括约肌)周围的肌肉带会松弛,使食物和液体流入您的胃。然后肌肉再次收紧。

如果食管下括约肌异常松弛或弱化,胃酸会反流到食管(反酸),引起胃灼热。当您弯腰或躺下时,酸反流可能更严重。

风险因素

对于一些人而言,某些食物和饮品可能诱发胃灼热,包括:

  • 辛辣食品
  • 洋葱
  • 柑橘制品
  • 西红柿制品,如番茄酱
  • 高脂肪或油炸食品
  • 薄荷
  • 巧克力
  • 酒精、碳酸饮料、咖啡或其他含咖啡因的饮品
  • 大量进食或高脂肪饮食

超重或怀孕也可能增加患胃灼热的风险。

并发症

经常发生而且会干扰您的日常活动的胃灼热被认为是胃食管反流病(GERD)。GERD 治疗可能需要处方药,偶尔需要手术或其他程序。GERD 会严重损害食管或导致食管癌变,称为巴雷特食管。

April 17, 2020
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