概述

尘螨过敏是一种对通常生活在室内灰尘中的小虫子的过敏反应。尘螨过敏的症状包括花粉症的常见症状,如打喷嚏和鼻漏。许多尘螨过敏的人也有哮喘症状,如哮鸣和呼吸困难。

尘螨是扁虱和蜘蛛的近亲,它们的体型非常小,只有在显微镜下才能看见。尘螨会食用人类脱落的皮肤细胞,并且易在温暖潮湿的环境中生长。大多数家庭的床上用品、软垫家具和地毯等物品为尘螨提供了理想的生存环境。

可以采取措施减少家中的尘螨数量,以控制尘螨过敏。有时必需采取药物治疗或其他治疗方法缓解症状和控制哮喘。

症状

鼻道炎引起的尘螨过敏症状包括:

  • 打喷嚏
  • 鼻漏
  • 眼睛发痒、发红或泪溢
  • 鼻塞
  • 鼻、上颚或咽喉发痒
  • 鼻后滴漏
  • 咳嗽
  • 面部压迫和疼痛
  • 眼下方皮肤肿胀、发蓝
  • 儿童常常向上揉搓鼻子

如果您的尘螨过敏引起哮喘,您还可能出现:

  • 呼吸困难
  • 胸闷或胸部疼痛
  • 呼气时发出可听到的哨鸣音或哮鸣音
  • 因气短、咳嗽或哮鸣而出现睡眠困难
  • 呼吸道病毒(如感冒或流感)加重咳嗽或哮鸣发作

尘螨过敏的范围可从轻度到重度。轻微的尘螨过敏可能会导致偶尔流鼻涕、泪溢和打喷嚏。在严重的情况下,这种状况可能持续(慢性),导致持续打喷嚏、咳嗽、鼻塞、面部受压或严重的哮喘发作。

何时就诊

尘螨过敏的一些体征和症状,如流涕或打喷嚏,与普通感冒相似。有时很难知道您是感冒还是过敏。如果症状持续超过一周,则可能是过敏。

如果您的体征和症状很严重,比如严重的鼻塞、哮鸣或睡眠困难,请咨询医生。如果哮鸣或气短迅速恶化,或者轻微活动时出现气短,请寻求急救护理。

When to see a doctor

Some signs and symptoms of dust mite allergy, such as a runny nose or sneezing, are similar to those of the common cold. Sometimes it's difficult to know whether you have a cold or an allergy. If symptoms persist for longer than one week, you might have an allergy.

If your signs and symptoms are severe — such as severe nasal congestion, wheezing or difficulty sleeping — call your doctor. Seek emergency care if wheezing or shortness of breath rapidly worsens or if you are short of breath with minimal activity.

病因

免疫系统对花粉、宠物毛屑或尘螨等外来物质起反应就是过敏。您的免疫系统产生抗体蛋白,那么使您生病或受感染的不速之客就不能伤害您。

如果您过敏了,您的免疫系统会将您的特殊过敏原识别为有害物质(即使无害),进而产生抗体。您一旦接触过敏原,您的免疫系统使您的鼻道或肺部产生发炎反应。长期或经常接触过敏原会造成伴随哮喘的持续(慢性)发炎。

尘螨食用皮肤细胞等人体掉落的有机物质,它们不喝水,而是从空气湿度中吸收水分。

粉尘中还含有尘螨的粪便和腐尸,尘螨“残骸”中的蛋白质才是尘螨过敏的元凶。

风险因素

以下因素会增加尘螨过敏的风险:

  • 有家族过敏史。如果您的家庭成员中有多人对尘螨过敏,您将更容易过敏。
  • 暴露于尘螨。暴露于充满尘螨的环境中,尤其是在幼年时期,会使您的风险增加。
  • 儿童或青少年。儿童或青少年更容易出现尘螨过敏。

并发症

如果您对尘螨过敏,接触尘螨及其残骸可能导致并发症。

  • 鼻窦感染。因尘螨过敏引起的鼻腔组织持续性(慢性)炎症会阻塞鼻窦(与鼻腔相连的空腔)。这种阻塞可能会使您更容易患上鼻窦感染(鼻窦炎)。
  • 哮喘。对尘螨过敏的哮喘患者通常难以控制哮喘症状。他们可能有哮喘发作的风险,需要立即就医或接受急救护理。

Jan. 13, 2022
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