What happens during a dental exam for children might vary depending on the child's age and treatment needs.
Ages 6 months to 1 year
The dentist or hygienist might place your child on a table or have you hold your child on your lap to conduct the exam. Then the dentist or hygienist will likely:
- Evaluate your child's oral hygiene and overall health, drinking and eating habits, and his or her risk of tooth decay
- Remove any stains or deposits on your child's teeth by gently scrubbing with a wet toothbrush
- Demonstrate proper cleaning techniques
- Assess how much fluoride your child is getting through his or her diet and use of oral hygiene products — and, if necessary, prescribe a fluoride supplement or apply a topical fluoride treatment to your child's teeth
- Look for sores or bumps on your child's tongue, inside the cheeks, and on the roof of the mouth
- Evaluate the impact of habits such as pacifier use and thumb sucking
Toddlers, school-age children and adolescents
During each regular checkup, the dentist or hygienist will continue to evaluate your child's oral hygiene and overall health, drinking and eating habits, and his or her risk of tooth decay. In addition to cleaning your child's teeth, the dentist or hygienist might:
- Take dental X-rays or, if necessary, do other diagnostic procedures
- Apply sealants — thin, protective plastic coatings — to permanent molars and other back teeth susceptible to decay
- Repair any cavities or tooth defects
- Look for any problems in the way your child's upper and lower teeth fit together
- Counsel your child about the impact of thumb sucking, jaw clenching or nail biting
- Recommend pre-orthodontic treatment, such as a special mouthpiece, or orthodontics, such as braces, to straighten your child's teeth or adjust your child's bite
As your child gets older, dental exams might also include counseling about the oral health risks associated with:
- Drinking sugary beverages
- Chewing tobacco
- Eating disorders
- Oral piercings
- Not wearing a mouthguard during contact sports
The dentist or hygienist might also discuss the possible removal of your child's wisdom teeth (third molars) at the appropriate age.
A dental X-ray (radiograph) allows the dentist to see detailed images of specific sections of your child's mouth. Various types of oral X-rays are available, including:
- Bitewing. This type of X-ray allows the dentist to see the crowns of the upper and lower teeth. During a bitewing X-ray, your child will bite down on the X-ray film holder while the X-ray images are being taken. This view can often reveal decay between teeth that can't been seen during an oral exam.
- Periapical. This type of X-ray allows the dentist to see the entire tooth and the surrounding bone. This view allows for the best assessment of root development.
- Occlusal. This type of X-ray allows the dentist to see the way the upper teeth and corresponding lower teeth fit together when the jaw is closed.
- Panoramic. This type of X-ray gives the dentist a broad view of the entire mouth. This view is often used for a comprehensive assessment of tooth and jaw development. It can also help determine the need for orthodontics.
- Cone beam computerized tomography. This type of X-ray also is used to assess tooth and jaw development. Unlike the other radiographs, it provides a 3-D view so that the dentist can better gauge space and development.
X-rays aren't typically needed at every dental visit. Radiation exposure from dental X-rays is low — but talk to the dentist if you're concerned about the radiation exposure.
In some cases, the dentist might recommend making a dental impression to produce a replica of your child's teeth and oral tissue. The dentist or hygienist will fill a horseshoe-shaped tray with a soft, gelatin-like material and place it over your child's upper and then lower teeth. After a few minutes, the trayis removed and used to create a dental cast of your child's mouth.
A dental cast can be used to study and document the development of jaws and tooth eruption progress. The dentist might use a dental cast and radiographs to assess potential space for the adequate location of a child's permanent teeth.
Feb. 14, 2015
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- Child oral health. American Dental Hygienists' Association. http://www.adha.org/resources. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015.
- Ask your dental hygienist about proper oral health care for adolescents. American Dental Hygienists' Association. http://www.adha.org/resources. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015.
- Ask your dental hygienist about proper oral health care for children. American Dental Hygienists' Association. http://www.adha.org/resources. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015.
- X-rays. American Dental Association. http://www.ada.org/en/Home-MouthHealthy/az-topics/x/x-rays. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015.
- White SC, et al. Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2013:1.
- FAQs for parents. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. http://www.mychildrensteeth.org/education/faq/. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015.
- Guideline on periodicity of examination, preventive dental services, anticipatory guidance/counseling, and oral treatment for infants, children, and adolescents. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. http://www.mychildrensteeth.org/policies/. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015.
- Fonseca RB, et al. Radiodensity evaluation of dental impression materials in comparison to tooth structures. Journal of Applied Oral Science. 2010;18:467.
- Teething. American Dental Association. http://www.ada.org/en/Home-MouthHealthy/az-topics/t/teething. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015.