Descripción general

Si tienes un trastorno del estado de ánimo, tu estado emocional o de ánimo general está distorsionado o no se condice con las circunstancias e interfiere en la capacidad de funcionamiento. Puedes sentirte sumamente triste, vacío o irritable (deprimido), o puedes tener períodos de depresión alternados con momentos de felicidad excesiva (manía).

Los trastornos de ansiedad también pueden afectar el estado de ánimo y a menudo aparecen junto con la depresión. Los trastornos del estado de ánimo pueden aumentar el riesgo de suicidio.

Algunos ejemplos de trastornos del estado de ánimo incluyen los siguientes:

  • Trastorno depresivo mayor: períodos prolongados y persistentes de tristeza extrema.
  • Trastorno bipolar: también denominado depresión maníaca o trastorno afectivo bipolar; se trata de una depresión que alterna entre momentos de depresión y de manía.
  • Trastorno afectivo estacional: tipo de depresión que muy a menudo está relacionado con tener menos horas de luz solar en las latitudes más al norte y más al sur, desde fines de otoño hasta principios de la primavera.
  • Trastorno ciclotímico: trastorno que provoca altibajos emocionales que son menos extremos que en el trastorno bipolar.
  • Trastorno disfórico premenstrual: cambios en el estado de ánimo e irritabilidad que se producen durante la fase premenstrual del ciclo de la mujer y desaparecen con el comienzo de la menstruación.
  • Trastorno depresivo persistente (distimia): tipo de depresión a largo plazo (crónica).
  • Trastorno de desregulación disruptiva del estado de ánimo: trastorno de irritabilidad crónica, grave y persistente en los niños, que a menudo comprende berrinches frecuentes que no son coherentes con el desarrollo madurativo del niño.
  • Depresión relacionada con una enfermedad física: estado de ánimo deprimido persistente y pérdida significativa del placer en todas las actividades o en gran parte de estas, que tiene relación directa con los efectos físicos de otra enfermedad.
  • Depresión inducida por el consumo de sustancias adictivas o por medicamentos: síntomas de depresión que se desarrollan durante el consumo o la abstinencia de sustancias adictivas, o poco después, o tras la exposición a un medicamento.

En la mayoría de las personas, los trastornos del estado de ánimo pueden tratarse con éxito con medicamentos y terapia de conversación (psicoterapia).

Types of mood disorders

Mood disorders are divided into two major groups: depressive disorders and bipolar disorders. Each group includes several different types.

Depressive disorders

Depressive disorders cause loss of pleasure in most or all activities and ultimately affect your quality of life. You could have less energy, trouble sleeping, trouble concentrating, changes in appetite and lack interest. You also could have feelings of worthlessness or guilt and be in pain and tired.

Types of depressive disorders include:

  • Major depression — typically lasts for at least two weeks and often longer than four weeks.
  • Seasonal affective disorder — occurs at certain times of the year, typically with a change of season.
  • Persistent depressive disorder — a long-term form of depression that causes feelings of sadness, emptiness and often hopelessness.
  • Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder — a diagnosis used for children and teenagers. It features constant, serious and lasting testiness with frequent temper outbursts that are not consistent with the age of the child.
  • Premenstrual dysphoric disorder — features mood changes, hopelessness and feelings of being overwhelmed or out of control. These symptoms occur in the 10 days before a menstrual period and go away within a few days after a period begins.
  • Depression related to a medical condition — features a great loss of pleasure in most or all activities due to the physical effects of another medical health problem.
  • Depression related to substance or medicine use — features depression symptoms that start during or soon after using a street drug or medicine, or after withdrawal from these substances.

Bipolar disorders

Bipolar disorders feature mood swings that include emotional highs called manic or hypomanic episodes, and lows, called depressive episodes. These highs and lows are usually continuous. But they also can change from high to low or low to high — or shift into a normal mood. Sometimes both the highs and lows might occur together. This is called a mixed episode. You could be easily distracted and have racing thoughts. Your sleep also could be affected.

Types include:

  • Bipolar I disorder — features a constantly elevated mood that lasts for at least one week. This is called a manic episode. It affects your overall ability to function and makes it more likely that you'll take part in risky behavior.
  • Bipolar II disorder — features constantly elevated moods — called hypomanias — that last at least four days and less than one week. There may be risky behaviors, but usually hypomania does not greatly affect your ability to function. But other people should be able to notice that something is different about you.
  • Cyclothymia — features shifts from emotional highs to emotional lows that can affect your ability to function. The emotional ups and downs are not as extreme as those in bipolar I or II disorder.
  • Bipolar related to a medical condition — features symptoms that are the same as bipolar disorder, but they can be due to a medical condition. For example, Cushing's disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke and traumatic brain injury can cause bipolar mania or hypomania.
  • Bipolar related to the use of certain substances — features symptoms that are the same as bipolar disorder, but they can be due to alcohol, street drugs or medicine.

Síntomas

Symptoms depend on the type of mood disorder.

Depressive disorders

Depressive disorders are common and often long-lasting. They can:

  • Cause you to feel sad, empty, anxious and cranky.
  • Affect your ability to focus and function.
  • Cause loss of pleasure in most or all activities.
  • Affect your energy level and quality of life.
  • Make you feel worthless or guilty.
  • Affect how much you eat and sleep.
  • Raise thoughts about suicide.

Bipolar disorders

Bipolar disorders may feature:

  • Moods that go back and forth between emotional highs, called mania or hypomania, and lows, called depression.
  • Feeling on top of the world, superior to others, or that you're so strong that nothing can harm or change you.
  • Racing thoughts.
  • Increased energy.
  • Disrupted sleep, usually a decreased need for sleep, but a continued high energy level.
  • Impulsive behaviors.

You also could be easily distracted and more likely to think about suicide or plan for suicide, depending on the seriousness of symptoms.

Other types of mood disorders may include other symptoms.

Cuándo consultar al médico

Si estás preocupado porque crees que podrías tener un trastorno del estado de ánimo, pide una consulta con tu médico o con un profesional de salud mental tan pronto como sea posible. Si tienes reticencia a buscar tratamiento, habla con un amigo o un ser querido, un líder religioso u otra persona en quien confíes.

Habla con un profesional del cuidado de la salud si ocurre lo siguiente:

  • Sientes que tus emociones interfieren en tu trabajo, tus relaciones, tus actividades sociales u otros aspectos de tu vida
  • Tienes problemas con el alcohol o las drogas
  • Tienes conductas o pensamientos suicidas (de ser así, procura tratamiento de urgencia inmediatamente)

Es poco probable que el trastorno del estado de ánimo desaparezca por sí solo e, incluso, puede empeorar con el tiempo. Busca ayuda profesional antes de que el trastorno del estado de ánimo se agrave; puede ser más fácil tratarlo al comienzo.

Causas

Mood disorders are caused by traits passed down to you, as well as environmental factors and life events. Environmental factors can include, for example, childhood experiences and stressful life events. Some prescription drugs, such as corticosteroids and medicines for Parkinson's disease, and street drugs also can cause mood disorders.

Factores de riesgo

Risk factors include life experiences and stressful life events that increase the risk of certain types of mood disorders.

Mood disorders may occur along with neurological disorders. These are conditions that affect the brain and the nervous system. For example, depression is common among people with multiple sclerosis, dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke and epilepsy. Depression also often occurs in people who have movements disorders like Parkinson's disease and those who have other long-term health conditions.

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Trastornos del estado de ánimo - atención en Mayo Clinic

Oct. 29, 2021
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