Descripción general

El cáncer ampular es un tipo de cáncer poco frecuente que se forma en una zona del aparato digestivo llamada «ampolla de Vater». La ampolla de Vater está ubicada donde el conducto colédoco y el conducto pancreático se unen y se vuelcan en el intestino delgado.

El cáncer ampular se forma cerca de muchas otras partes del aparato digestivo, como el hígado, el páncreas y el intestino delgado. Cuando el cáncer ampular crece, puede afectar estos otros órganos.

El tratamiento para el cáncer ampular, con frecuencia, consiste en una cirugía extensa para extraer el cáncer y un margen amplio de tejido saludable.

Ampullary cancer care at Mayo Clinic

Síntomas

Signs and symptoms of ampullary cancer may include:

  • Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
  • Clay-colored stools
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever
  • Bleeding from the rectum
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Weight loss

When to see a doctor

Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any persistent signs or symptoms that worry you.

Causas

It's not clear what causes ampullary cancer.

In general, cancer starts when cells develop changes (mutations) in their DNA. A cell's DNA contains the instructions that tell the cell what to do. The changes tell the cell to begin multiplying uncontrollably and to continue living when normal cells would die. The accumulating cells form a tumor that can invade and destroy normal body tissue.

Factores de riesgo

Factors that can increase the risk of ampullary cancer include:

  • Your age. Ampullary cancer is more common in adults older than 70.
  • Being male. Males are slightly more likely to develop ampullary cancer than are females.
  • Inherited syndromes that increase cancer risk. Some gene mutations passed through generations of your family can increase your risk of ampullary cancer significantly. Only a small percentage of ampullary cancers are linked to inherited genes. The most common inherited syndromes that increase ampullary cancer risk are familial adenomatous polyposis and Lynch syndrome, which is also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.

Cáncer ampular - atención en Mayo Clinic

Feb. 05, 2019
  1. Townsend CM Jr, et al. Tumors of the bile ducts, gallbladder and ampulla (Tumores de las vías biliares, de la vesícula y de la ampolla). En: Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: The Biological Basis of Modern Surgical Practice (Manual de cirugía de Sabiston: fundamentos biológicos de la práctica quirúrgica moderna). 19.ª ed. Filadelfia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Último acceso: 27 de octubre de 2016.
  2. Ryan DP, et al. Ampullary carcinoma: Treatment and prognosis (Carcinoma ampular: tratamiento y pronóstico). http://www.uptodate.com/home. Último acceso: 27 de octubre de 2016.
  3. Riggin ER. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. 29 de julio de 2016.

See also