Description and Brand Names

Drug information provided by: IBM Micromedex

US Brand Name

  1. AVINza
  2. Kadian
  3. Kadian ER
  4. Morphabond
  5. MS Contin
  6. Oramorph SR
  7. Roxanol
  8. Roxanol-T

Descriptions


Morphine tablet is used to relieve short-term (acute) or long-term (chronic) moderate to severe pain. The extended-release capsule and extended-release tablet are used to treat pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment and when other pain medicines did not work well enough or cannot be tolerated. Morphine belongs to the group of medicines called narcotic analgesics (pain medicines). It acts on the central nervous system (CNS) to relieve pain.

Morphine extended-release capsules and extended-release tablets should not be used if you need pain medicine for just a short time, such as when recovering from surgery. Do not use this medicine to relieve mild pain, or in situations when non-narcotic medication is effective. This medicine should not be used to treat pain that you only have once in a while or "as needed".

When morphine is used for a long time, it may become habit-forming, causing mental or physical dependence. However, people who have continuing pain should not let the fear of dependence keep them from using narcotics to relieve their pain. Mental dependence (addiction) is not likely to occur when narcotics are used for this purpose. Physical dependence may lead to withdrawal side effects if treatment is stopped suddenly. However, severe withdrawal side effects can usually be prevented by gradually reducing the dose over a period of time before treatment is stopped completely.

This medicine is available only under a restricted distribution program called the Opioid Analgesic REMS (Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy) program.

This product is available in the following dosage forms:

  • Tablet, Extended Release
  • Tablet
  • Capsule, Extended Release, 24 HR
  • Solution
  • Capsule, Extended Release

Before Using

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered:

Allergies

Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.

Pediatric

Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of morphine in the pediatric population. Safety and efficacy have not been established.

Geriatric

Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of morphine in the elderly. However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related lung, liver, kidney, or heart problems, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving morphine.

Breastfeeding

There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk when using this medication during breastfeeding. Weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks before taking this medication while breastfeeding.

Drug Interactions

Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.

Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.

  • Nalmefene
  • Naltrexone
  • Safinamide

Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Acepromazine
  • Alfentanil
  • Almotriptan
  • Alprazolam
  • Alvimopan
  • Amifampridine
  • Amineptine
  • Amiodarone
  • Amisulpride
  • Amitriptyline
  • Amitriptylinoxide
  • Amobarbital
  • Amoxapine
  • Amphetamine
  • Anileridine
  • Aripiprazole
  • Asenapine
  • Azithromycin
  • Baclofen
  • Benperidol
  • Benzhydrocodone
  • Benzphetamine
  • Bromazepam
  • Bromopride
  • Brompheniramine
  • Buprenorphine
  • Buspirone
  • Butabarbital
  • Butorphanol
  • Captopril
  • Carbamazepine
  • Carbinoxamine
  • Carisoprodol
  • Carphenazine
  • Carvedilol
  • Chloral Hydrate
  • Chlordiazepoxide
  • Chlorpheniramine
  • Chlorpromazine
  • Chlorzoxazone
  • Cimetidine
  • Citalopram
  • Clarithromycin
  • Clobazam
  • Clomipramine
  • Clonazepam
  • Clopidogrel
  • Clorazepate
  • Clozapine
  • Cobicistat
  • Cocaine
  • Codeine
  • Conivaptan
  • Cyclobenzaprine
  • Cyclosporine
  • Desipramine
  • Desmopressin
  • Desvenlafaxine
  • Dexmedetomidine
  • Dextroamphetamine
  • Dextromethorphan
  • Dezocine
  • Diazepam
  • Dibenzepin
  • Dichloralphenazone
  • Difenoxin
  • Dihydrocodeine
  • Diltiazem
  • Diphenhydramine
  • Diphenoxylate
  • Dolasetron
  • Donepezil
  • Doxepin
  • Doxorubicin
  • Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Liposome
  • Doxylamine
  • Dronedarone
  • Droperidol
  • Duloxetine
  • Eletriptan
  • Enflurane
  • Erythromycin
  • Escitalopram
  • Esketamine
  • Estazolam
  • Eszopiclone
  • Ethchlorvynol
  • Ethopropazine
  • Ethylmorphine
  • Felodipine
  • Fentanyl
  • Flibanserin
  • Fluoxetine
  • Fluphenazine
  • Flurazepam
  • Fluspirilene
  • Fluvoxamine
  • Fospropofol
  • Frovatriptan
  • Furazolidone
  • Granisetron
  • Halazepam
  • Haloperidol
  • Halothane
  • Hexobarbital
  • Hydrocodone
  • Hydromorphone
  • Hydroxytryptophan
  • Hydroxyzine
  • Imipramine
  • Iproniazid
  • Isocarboxazid
  • Isoflurane
  • Itraconazole
  • Ivacaftor
  • Ketamine
  • Ketobemidone
  • Ketoconazole
  • Levomilnacipran
  • Levorphanol
  • Linezolid
  • Lisdexamfetamine
  • Lithium
  • Lofepramine
  • Lofexidine
  • Lopinavir
  • Lorazepam
  • Lorcaserin
  • Loxapine
  • Meclizine
  • Melitracen
  • Melperone
  • Meperidine
  • Mephobarbital
  • Meprobamate
  • Meptazinol
  • Mesoridazine
  • Metaxalone
  • Methadone
  • Methamphetamine
  • Methdilazine
  • Methocarbamol
  • Methohexital
  • Methotrimeprazine
  • Methylene Blue
  • Methylnaltrexone
  • Metoclopramide
  • Midazolam
  • Milnacipran
  • Mirtazapine
  • Moclobemide
  • Molindone
  • Moricizine
  • Nalbuphine
  • Nalorphine
  • Naloxone
  • Naratriptan
  • Nefazodone
  • Nialamide
  • Nicomorphine
  • Nilotinib
  • Nitrazepam
  • Nitrous Oxide
  • Nortriptyline
  • Olanzapine
  • Ondansetron
  • Opipramol
  • Opium
  • Opium Alkaloids
  • Orphenadrine
  • Oxazepam
  • Oxycodone
  • Oxymorphone
  • Palonosetron
  • Papaveretum
  • Paregoric
  • Paroxetine
  • Pentazocine
  • Pentobarbital
  • Perampanel
  • Perazine
  • Periciazine
  • Perphenazine
  • Phenelzine
  • Phenobarbital
  • Pimozide
  • Piperacetazine
  • Pipotiazine
  • Piritramide
  • Prazepam
  • Primidone
  • Procarbazine
  • Prochlorperazine
  • Promazine
  • Promethazine
  • Propofol
  • Protriptyline
  • Quazepam
  • Quercetin
  • Quetiapine
  • Quinidine
  • Ramelteon
  • Ranolazine
  • Rasagiline
  • Remifentanil
  • Remoxipride
  • Ritonavir
  • Rizatriptan
  • Samidorphan
  • Scopolamine
  • Secobarbital
  • Selegiline
  • Sertindole
  • Sertraline
  • Sibutramine
  • Simeprevir
  • Sodium Oxybate
  • St John's Wort
  • Sufentanil
  • Sulpiride
  • Sumatriptan
  • Sunitinib
  • Suvorexant
  • Tapentadol
  • Telaprevir
  • Temazepam
  • Thiethylperazine
  • Thiopental
  • Thiopropazate
  • Thioridazine
  • Tianeptine
  • Ticagrelor
  • Tilidine
  • Tizanidine
  • Tocophersolan
  • Tolonium Chloride
  • Topiramate
  • Tramadol
  • Tranylcypromine
  • Trazodone
  • Triazolam
  • Trifluoperazine
  • Trifluperidol
  • Triflupromazine
  • Trimeprazine
  • Trimipramine
  • Tryptophan
  • Venlafaxine
  • Verapamil
  • Vilazodone
  • Vortioxetine
  • Zaleplon
  • Ziprasidone
  • Zolmitriptan
  • Zolpidem
  • Zopiclone
  • Zotepine

Using this medicine with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Esmolol
  • Gabapentin
  • Gabapentin Enacarbil
  • Rifampin
  • Somatostatin
  • Yohimbine

Other Interactions

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.

Using this medicine with any of the following is usually not recommended, but may be unavoidable in some cases. If used together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use this medicine, or give you special instructions about the use of food, alcohol, or tobacco.

  • Ethanol

Other Medical Problems

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of this medicine. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Addison disease (adrenal gland problem) or
  • Alcohol abuse, or history of or
  • Brain tumor, history of or
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or
  • Cor pulmonale (serious heart condition) or
  • Depression, history of or
  • Drug dependence, especially with narcotics, or history of or
  • Enlarged prostate (BPH, prostatic hypertrophy) or
  • Gallbladder disease or gallstones or
  • Head injuries, history of or
  • Heart disease or
  • Hypothyroidism (an underactive thyroid) or
  • Hypovolemia (low blood volume) or
  • Increased pressure in the head or
  • Kyphoscoliosis (curvature of the spine with breathing problems) or
  • Mental health problems, history of or
  • Problems with passing urine or
  • Stomach or bowel problems (eg, blockage) or
  • Trouble swallowing or
  • Weakened physical condition—Use with caution. May increase risk for more serious side effects.
  • Hypotension (low blood pressure) or
  • Pancreatitis (swelling of the pancreas) or
  • Seizures, history of—Use with caution. May make these conditions worse.
  • Kidney disease or
  • Liver disease—Use with caution. The effects may be increased because of slower removal of the medicine from the body.
  • Lung or breathing problems, severe (eg, asthma, respiratory depression) or
  • Stomach or bowel blockage (eg, paralytic ileus)—Should not be used in patients with these conditions.

Proper Use

Take this medicine only as directed by your doctor. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer time than your doctor ordered. This is especially important for elderly patients, who may be more sensitive to the effects of pain medicines. If too much of this medicine is taken for a long time, it may become habit-forming (causing mental or physical dependence).

It is very important that you understand the rules of the Opioid Analgesic REMS program to prevent addiction, abuse, and misuse of morphine. This medicine should also come with a Medication Guide and patient instructions. Read and follow the instructions carefully. Read it again each time you refill your prescription in case there is new information. Ask your doctor if you have any questions.

Avinza® is taken every 24 hours. Kadian® is taken every 12 or 24 hours at the same time each day. Arymo™ ER, Morphabond™ ER, and MS Contin® is taken every 8 or 12 hours.

You may take this medicine with or without food.

Morphine extended-release capsules and extended-release tablets should only be used by patients who have already been taking narcotic pain medicines, also called opioids. These patients are called opioid-tolerant. If you are uncertain whether or not you are opioid-tolerant, check with your doctor before using this medicine.

Swallow the extended-release capsules and extended-release tablets whole. Do not crush, break, dissolve, or chew them. Do not use extended-release tablets that are broken.

If you cannot swallow the extended-release capsule, you may open it and pour the contents into a small amount of applesauce. Stir this mixture well and swallow it right away without chewing. Do not receive this medicine through a nasogastric tube.

While taking the extended-release tablet, part of the tablet may pass into your stool. This is normal and nothing to worry about.

Morphine extended-release capsules or tablets work differently from the regular morphine oral solution or tablets, even at the same dose. Do not switch from one brand or form to the other unless your doctor tells you to.

Measure the oral liquid with a marked measuring spoon, oral syringe, or medicine cup. The average household teaspoon may not hold the right amount of liquid.

Dosing

The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For oral dosage form (extended-release capsules):
    • For moderate to severe pain:
      • Adults—
        • The total amount of milligrams (mg) per day is determined by your doctor. Your doctor may adjust your dose as needed.
        • Avinza®: The capsule is given every 24 hours.
        • Kadian®: The capsule is given every 12 or 24 hours.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
  • For oral dosage form (extended-release tablets):
    • For moderate to severe pain:
      • Adults—The total amount of milligrams (mg) per day is determined by your doctor. Your doctor may adjust your dose as needed. The tablet is usually given every 8 or 12 hours.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
  • For oral dosage form (solution):
    • For moderate to severe pain:
      • Adults—10 to 20 milligrams (mg) every 4 hours as needed. Your doctor may adjust your dose as needed.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
  • For oral dosage form (tablets):
    • For moderate to severe pain:
      • Adults—15 to 30 milligrams (mg) every 4 hours as needed. Your doctor may adjust your dose as needed.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of this medicine, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.

Morphine can cause serious unwanted effects if taken by adults, children, or pets who are not used to strong narcotic pain medicines. Make sure you store the medicine in a safe and secure place to prevent others from getting it.

Flush any unused medicine down the toilet.

Precautions

It is very important that your doctor check your progress while you are using this medicine. This will allow your doctor to see if the medicine is working properly and to decide if you should continue to take it. Blood and urine tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects.

Do not use this medicine if you have used an MAO inhibitor (MAOI) (eg, isocarboxazid [Marplan®], linezolid [Zyvox®], phenelzine [Nardil®], selegiline [Eldepryl®], tranylcypromine [Parnate®]) within the past 14 days.

This medicine will add to the effects of alcohol and other central nervous system (CNS) depressants. CNS depressants are medicines that slow down the nervous system, which may cause drowsiness or make you less alert. Some examples of CNS depressants are antihistamines or medicine for allergies or colds, sedatives, tranquilizers, or sleeping medicine, other prescription pain medicine or narcotics, medicine for seizures or barbiturates, muscle relaxants, or anesthetics, including some dental anesthetics. This effect may last for a few days after you stop using this medicine. Check with your doctor before taking any of these medicines while you are using this medicine.

This medicine may be habit-forming. If you feel that the medicine is not working as well, do not use more than your prescribed dose.

Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting may occur when you get up suddenly from a lying or sitting position. Getting up slowly may help lessen this problem. Also, lying down for a while may relieve the dizziness or lightheadedness.

This medicine may make you dizzy, drowsy, confused, or disoriented. Do not drive or do anything else that could be dangerous until you know how this medicine affects you.

Using narcotics for a long time can cause severe constipation. To prevent this, your doctor may direct you to take laxatives, drink a lot of fluids, or increase the amount of fiber in your diet. Be sure to follow the directions carefully, because continuing constipation can lead to more serious problems.

This medicine may cause a serious allergic reaction called anaphylaxis, which can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention. Call your doctor right away if you have a rash, itching, hoarseness, trouble breathing or swallowing, or any swelling of your hands, face, or mouth while you are using this medicine.

If you have been using this medicine regularly for several weeks or longer, do not change your dose or suddenly stop using it without checking with your doctor. Your doctor may want you to gradually reduce the amount you are using before stopping it completely. This may help prevent worsening of your condition and reduce the possibility of withdrawal symptoms, such as abdominal or stomach cramps, anxiety, fever, nausea, runny nose, sweating, tremors, or trouble sleeping.

Do not take too much of this medicine or take it more often than your doctor tells you to. This can be life-threatening. Symptoms of an overdose include: extreme dizziness or weakness, slow heartbeat or breathing, seizures, trouble breathing, and cold, clammy skin. Call your doctor right away if you notice these symptoms.

Using this medicine while you are pregnant may cause serious unwanted effects, including neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome in your newborn baby. Tell your doctor right away if you think you are pregnant or if you plan to become pregnant while using this medicine.

Using too much of this medicine may cause reduced infertility (unable to have children). Talk with your doctor before using this medicine if you plan to have children.

Check with your doctor right away if you have anxiety, restlessness, a fast heartbeat, fever, sweating, muscle spasms, twitching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or see or hear things that are not there. These may be symptoms of a serious condition called serotonin syndrome. Your risk may be higher if you also take certain other medicines that affect the serotonin levels in your body.

Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines and herbal or vitamin supplements.

Side Effects

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:

Less common

  1. Blurred vision
  2. bulging soft spot on the head of an infant
  3. burning, crawling, itching, numbness, prickling, "pins and needles", or tingling feelings
  4. change in the ability to see colors, especially blue or yellow
  5. chest pain or discomfort
  6. chills
  7. confusion
  8. cough
  9. decreased urination
  10. dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up suddenly from a lying or sitting position
  11. fainting
  12. fast, pounding, or irregular heartbeat or pulse
  13. headache
  14. hives, itching, or skin rash
  15. increased sweating
  16. loss of appetite
  17. nausea
  18. nervousness
  19. pounding in the ears
  20. puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
  21. severe constipation
  22. severe vomiting
  23. shakiness in the legs, arms, hands, or feet
  24. slow heartbeat
  25. stomach pain
  26. sweating
  27. vomiting

Incidence not known

  1. Agitation
  2. black, tarry stools
  3. cold, clammy skin
  4. darkening of the skin
  5. diarrhea
  6. difficulty swallowing
  7. feeling of warmth or heat
  8. fever
  9. flushing or redness of the skin, especially on the face and neck
  10. irregular, fast or slow, or shallow breathing
  11. lightheadedness
  12. loss of consciousness
  13. low blood pressure or pulse
  14. mental depression
  15. overactive reflexes
  16. painful urination
  17. pale or blue lips, fingernails, or skin
  18. pale skin
  19. pinpoint red spots on the skin
  20. poor coordination
  21. pounding in the ears
  22. puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
  23. restlessness
  24. shakiness and unsteady walk
  25. shivering
  26. talking or acting with excitement you cannot control
  27. tightness in the chest
  28. twitching
  29. unsteadiness, trembling, or other problems with muscle control or coordination
  30. unusual bleeding or bruising
  31. unusual tiredness or weakness
  32. very slow heartbeat

Get emergency help immediately if any of the following symptoms of overdose occur:

Symptoms of overdose

  1. Constricted, pinpoint, or small pupils (black part of the eye)
  2. decreased awareness or responsiveness
  3. extreme drowsiness
  4. fever
  5. increased blood pressure
  6. increased thirst
  7. lower back or side pain
  8. muscle cramps, spasms, pain, or stiffness
  9. no muscle tone or movement
  10. severe sleepiness
  11. swelling of the face, fingers, or lower legs
  12. weight gain

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

More common

  1. Cramps
  2. difficulty having a bowel movement
  3. drowsiness
  4. false or unusual sense of well-being
  5. relaxed and calm feeling
  6. sleepiness or unusual drowsiness
  7. weight loss

Less common

  1. Absent, missed, or irregular menstrual periods
  2. bad, unusual, or unpleasant (after) taste
  3. change in vision
  4. dry mouth
  5. floating feeling
  6. halos around lights
  7. heartburn or indigestion
  8. loss in sexual ability, desire, drive, or performance
  9. muscle stiffness or tightness
  10. night blindness
  11. overbright appearance of lights
  12. problems with muscle control
  13. stomach discomfort or upset
  14. trouble sleeping
  15. uncontrolled eye movements

Incidence not known

  1. Abnormal dreams
  2. change in walking and balance
  3. change or problem with discharge of semen
  4. clumsiness or unsteadiness
  5. confusion as to time, place, or person
  6. false beliefs that cannot be changed by facts
  7. feeling of constant movement of self or surroundings
  8. general feeling of discomfort or illness
  9. holding false beliefs that cannot be changed by fact
  10. poor insight and judgment
  11. problems with memory or speech
  12. seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there
  13. sensation of spinning
  14. trouble recognizing objects
  15. trouble thinking and planning
  16. trouble walking
  17. unusual excitement, nervousness, or restlessness

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.