Factors that may increase the risk of primary sclerosing cholangitis include:
Aug. 15, 2014
- Your age. Primary sclerosing cholangitis can occur at any age, but it's most often diagnosed between the ages of 30 and 50.
- Your sex. Primary sclerosing cholangitis occurs more often in men.
- Inflammatory bowel disease. A large proportion of people with primary sclerosing cholangitis also have inflammatory bowel disease.
- Your geographical location. People in the United States and Northern Europe have a higher risk of primary sclerosing cholangitis than do people in Asia and Southern Europe.
- Kowdley KV. Primary sclerosing cholangitis in adults: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 24, 2014.
- Singh S, et al. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: Diagnosis, prognosis, and management. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2013;11:898.
- Eaton JE, et al. Pathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis and advances in diagnosis and management. Gastroenterology. 2013;45:521.
- Imam MH, et al. Pathogenesis and management of pruritus in cholestatic liver disease. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2012;27:1150.
- Kowdley KV. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: Epidemiology and pathogenesis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 18, 2013.
- Hirschfield GM, et al. Primary sclerosing cholangitis. The Lancet. 2013;382:1587.
- Kowdley, KV. Primary sclerosing cholangitis in adults: Treatment. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 18, 2013.
- Bunchorntavakul C, et al. Pruritis in chronic liver disease. Clinics in Liver Disease. 2012;16:331.
- Phan NQ, et al. Antipruritic treatment with systemic µ-opioid receptor antagonists: A review. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2010;63:680.
- Cook AJ. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 22, 2014.
- Carbone M, et al. Autoimmune liver disease, autoimmunity and liver transplantation. Journal of Hepatology. 2014;60:210.
- Murad SD, et al. Efficacy of neoadjuvant chemoradiation, followed by liver transplantation, for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma at 12 US centers. Gastroenterology. 2012;143:88.
- Barbara Woodward Lips Patient Education Center. Perihilar and distal cholangiocarcinoma. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2013.
- Primary sclerosing cholangitis. American College of Gastroenterology. http://patients.gi.org/topics/primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-psc/. Accessed Jan. 24, 2014.
- Liver health and wellness. American Liver Foundation. http://www.liverfoundation.org/abouttheliver/liverhealth/. Accessed Jan. 24, 2014.
- Barbara Woodward Lips Patient Education Center. Nutrition for people with liver disease. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Research; 2013.
- Medication safety. Canadian Liver Foundation. http://www.liver.ca/liver-health/liver-disease-prevention/tips-for-healthy-liver/drug-safety.aspx. Accessed Jan. 23, 2014.
- Medications and the liver. American College of Gastroenterology. http://patients.gi.org/topics/medications-and-the-liver/. Accessed Jan. 24, 2014.
- Rosenthal TC, et al. Fatigue: An overview. American Family Physician. 2008;78:1173.
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