Dystonia is a movement disorder in which your muscles contract involuntarily, causing repetitive or twisting movements.
The condition can affect one part of your body (focal dystonia), two or more adjacent parts (segmental dystonia) or all parts of your body (general dystonia). The muscle spasms can be mild or severe, and might interfere with your performance of day-to-day tasks.
There's no cure for dystonia. But medications can improve symptoms. Surgery is sometimes used to disable or regulate nerves or certain brain regions in people with severe dystonia.
Dystonia care at Mayo Clinic
Nov. 25, 2015
- Comella C. Classification and evaluation of dystonia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 30, 2015.
- Flint PW, ed. Neurologic disorders of the larynx. In: Cummings Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Sept. 30, 2015.
- Jinnah HA, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of dystonia. Neurologic Clinics. 2015;33:77.
- Comella C. Treatment of dystonia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 30, 2015.
- Frontera WR, et al., eds. Cervical dystonia. In: Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Sept. 30, 2015.
- Yanoff M, et al., eds. Essential blepharospasm. In: Ophthalmology. 4th ed. Edinburgh, U.K.: Mosby Elsevier;; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Sept. 30, 2015.
- Khan J, et al. Oromandibular dystonia: Differential diagnosis and management. Journal of the American Dental Association. 2015;146:690.
- AskMayoExpert. Cervical dystonia. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015.
- Ferri FF. Neurology. In: Ferri's Practical Guide: Fast Facts for Patient Care. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Sept. 30, 2015.
- Prudenta CN, et al. Dystonia as a network disorder: What is the role of the cerebellum? Neuroscience. 2014;260:23.
- Dystonias fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/dystonias/detail_dystonias.htm. Accessed Sept. 30, 2015.
- Mills KA, et al. Neuromodulation for dystonia: Target and patient selection. Neurosurgery Clinics of North America. 2014;25:59.
- Yoga. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/yoga. Accessed Sept. 30, 2015.
- Riggin EA. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Sept. 18, 2015.