Perimenopause and menopause
Risk of depression may increase during the transition to menopause, a stage called perimenopause, when hormone levels may fluctuate erratically. Depression risk also may rise during early menopause or after menopause — both times when estrogen levels are significantly reduced.
Most women who experience uncomfortable menopausal symptoms don't develop depression. But for women whose sleep is disrupted for long periods of time or who have a history of depression, this is a vulnerable time. Also, hysterectomy with removal of the ovaries can lead to an abrupt onset of menopause with severe symptoms, including mood changes and sometimes depression.
Life situations and culture
The higher rate of depression in women isn't due to biology alone. Your life situation and cultural stressors play a role, too. Although these stressors also occur in men, it's usually at a lower rate. Factors that may add to a woman's risk include:
- Unequal power and status. Women are much more likely to live in poverty than men. Poverty and limited earning potential bring with them many concerns and stressors, including uncertainty about the future and less access to community and health care resources. Minority women might face added stress from racial discrimination. These issues can make you feel as if you don't have control over your life and can contribute to feelings of negativity and low self-esteem, which all increase your risk of depression.
- Work overload. Often women work outside the home and still handle domestic responsibilities. Many women find themselves dealing with the challenges and stress that can accompany single parenthood, such as working multiple jobs to make ends meet. Also, women may be caregivers sandwiched between generations — caring for their children while also caring for sick or older family members. These kinds of stressors can make you more vulnerable to depression.
- Sexual or physical abuse. Women who were emotionally, physically or sexually abused as children or adults are more likely to experience depression at some point in their lives than those who weren't abused. Women are more likely than men to experience sexual abuse.
Other conditions that occur with depression
Women with depression often have other mental health conditions that need treatment as well, such as:
- Anxiety. Anxiety commonly occurs along with depression in women.
- Eating disorders. There's a strong link between depression in women and eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia.
- Drug or alcohol abuse. Some women with depression also have some form of substance abuse or dependence. Substance abuse can worsen depression and make it harder to treat.
Recognizing depression and seeking treatment
Although depression might seem overwhelming, there's effective treatment. Even severe depression often can be successfully treated. Seek help if you have any signs and symptoms of depression, such as:
- Ongoing feelings of sadness, guilt or hopelessness
- Loss of interest in things you once enjoyed
- Significant changes in your sleep pattern, such as falling or staying asleep or sleeping too much
- Fatigue, or unexplained pain or other physical symptoms without an apparent cause
- Changes in appetite leading to significant weight loss or weight gain
- Feeling as though life isn't worth living, or having thoughts of suicide
Not sure how to get treatment? Consider turning to your primary care provider first. This may be your family doctor, an internist, a nurse practitioner, an obstetrician or a gynecologist. If needed, your primary care provider can refer you to a mental health provider who specializes in diagnosing and treating mental illness, such as a psychiatrist.
Remember, depression is both common and treatable. If you think you are depressed, don't hesitate to seek help.
Jan. 19, 2013
See more In-depth
- Women and depression: Discovering hope. National Institute of Mental Health. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/women-and-depression-discovering-hope/complete-index.shtml. Accessed Dec. 6, 2012.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, et al. Mental illness surveillance among adults in the United States. MMWR. 2011;60(suppl):1. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/su6003a1.htm?s_cid=su6003a1_w. Accessed Dec. 6, 2012.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, et al. Prevalence of current depression among persons aged ≥12 years, by age group and sex - United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010. MMWR. 2012;60:1747. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6051a7.htm?s_cid=mm6051a7_w. Accessed Dec. 6, 2012.
- Zender R, et al. Women's mental health: Depression and anxiety. Nursing Clinics of North America. 2009;44:355.
- Thapar A, et al. Depression in adolescence. The Lancet. 2012;379:1056.
- National survey on drug use and health: Depression triples between ages of 12 and 15 among adolescent girls. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. http://www.samhsa.gov/data/spotlight/Spot077GirlsDepression2012.pdf. Accessed Dec. 10, 2012.
- Deecher D, et al. From menarche to menopause: Exploring the underlying biology of depression in women experiencing hormonal changes. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2008;33:3.
- Lentz GM, et al. Comprehensive Gynecology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2012. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/linkTo?type=bookPage&isbn=978-0-323-06986-1&eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-06986-1..C2009-0-48752-X--TOP. Accessed Dec. 10, 2012.
- Misri S, et al. Depression in pregnant women: Clinical features and consequences. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed Dec. 10, 2012.
- Lusskin S, et al. Postpartum blues and depression. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed Dec. 10, 2012.
- Llaneza P, et al. Depressive disorders and the menopause transition. Maturitas. 2012;71:120.
- Women's health USA 2011: Women and poverty. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration. http://www.mchb.hrsa.gov/whusa11/popchar/downloads/pdfs/105wp.pdf. Accessed Dec. 10, 2012.
- Depression fact sheet. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/depression.cfm. Accessed Dec. 10, 2012.
- Halbreich U, et al. Atypical depression, somatic depression and anxious depression in women: Are they gender-preferred phenotypes? Journal of Affective Disorders. 2007;102:245.
- Somers KJ (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Dec. 21, 2012.
- Matthey S, et al. Diagnosing postpartum depression in mothers and fathers: Whatever happened to anxiety? Journal of Affective Disorders. 2003;74:139.
- Nanni V, et al. Childhood maltreatment predicts unfavorable course of illness and treatment outcome in depression: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2012;169:141.
- National intimate partner and sexual violence survey: 2010 summary report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/pdf/NISVS_Report2010-a.pdf. Accessed Jan. 10, 2013.