诊断

诊断腘动脉瘤时,医疗护理专业人员通常会对您进行体格检查,并检查腿部是否有以下症状:

  • 肿胀。
  • 触痛。
  • 小腿和膝关节后部皮肤颜色或温度变化。

医生可能询问您的病史,以及抽烟等生活习惯。

检查

影像学检查有助于确诊腘动脉瘤。检查可能包括:

  • 多普勒超声。这项检查通过声波来观察血液在动脉和静脉中的流动情况。这是一种简单快速诊断腘动脉瘤的方法。检查期间,医疗护理专业人员会将一个手持超声设备在膝关节后部及周围的皮肤表面轻轻移动。
  • 计算机体层成像血管造影或磁共振(MR)血管造影。这些检查可以生成动脉中血流的详细图像。检查开始前,会将造影剂(对比剂)注入血管。造影剂有助于更清楚显示动脉。

治疗

腘动脉瘤的治疗取决于:

  • 动脉瘤的大小。
  • 症状。
  • 您的年龄、整体健康状况

治疗方法包括:

  • 定期体检。您需经常进行检查和超声波检测,以监测动脉瘤,尤其是在动脉瘤较小时。
  • 药物。医生通常会给腘动脉瘤患者开具阿司匹林或其他血液稀释剂。可能需要通过静脉给药。医生也可能会推荐使用血压和胆固醇药物来治疗心脏病症状。
  • 手术。对于引起症状的任何大小的腘动脉瘤,通常建议进行开放手术以修复受损的动脉。手术通常适用于任何 2 厘米(0.8 英寸)或更大的腘动脉瘤。有时,可以进行一项创伤较小的手术(血管内修复术)。该治疗期间,在腘动脉内放置支架以保持其开放。
Sept. 26, 2023

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  3. Braswell-Pickering EA. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic. June 5, 2023.
  4. Peripheral arterial aneurysms. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular-disorders/peripheral-arterial-disorders/peripheral-arterial-aneurysms. Accessed May 25, 2023.
  5. Reed AB. Popliteal artery aneurysm. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed May 25, 2023.
  6. van Laarhoven CJHCM, et al. Systematic review of the co-prevalence of arterial aneurysms within the vasculature. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. 2021; doi:10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.10.002.
  7. Naazie I, et al. Open repair versus endovascular repair in the treatment of symptomatic popliteal artery aneurysms. 2022; doi:10.1016/j.avsg.2022.06.096.

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