概述

狼疮肾炎是系统性红斑狼疮(通常称为狼疮)患者的常见并发症。

狼疮是一种自身免疫病。它会导致您的免疫系统产生自身抗体蛋白质,这些蛋白质会攻击您自己的组织和器官,包括肾脏。

当狼疮自身抗体影响肾脏滤除废物的结构时,就会出现狼疮肾炎。这会导致肾脏炎症,并可能导致尿血、尿蛋白质、高血压、肾功能减弱或肾衰竭。

症状

狼疮肾炎的体征和症状包括:

  • 尿中有血
  • 尿呈泡沫状(由于尿中蛋白质过多)
  • 高血压
  • 手、脚踝或脚肿胀
  • 血液中含有大量的叫做肌酐的废物

病因

超过半数全身性狼疮成人患者发展成狼疮肾炎。全身性狼疮狼疮导致免疫系统蛋白质损害肾脏,减弱肾脏过滤废物功能。

肾脏工作原理

清洁血液是肾脏的一项重要任务。当血液在体内流动时,它会吸收额外的液体、化学物质和废物。肾脏负责将这类物质从血液中分离出来。然后这类物质通过尿液排出体外。如果肾脏无法正常发挥作用且不采取治疗,则会引起严重的健康问题,最终导致死亡。

风险因素

导致狼疮肾炎的已知风险因素不多,只有:

  • 性别。虽然女性更可能得狼疮,但是男性患狼疮肾炎的几率却高于女性。
  • 人种或种族。黑人、西裔/拉美裔和亚裔美国人比白人更容易患上狼疮肾炎。

并发症

狼疮肾炎可导致肾功能恶化或肾衰竭。

在 Mayo Clinic 治疗

Jan. 14, 2022
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