概述

失弛缓症是一种罕见的疾病,使食物和液体很难通过连接嘴和胃的吞咽管道(食管)进入胃中。

当食管中的神经受损时,会发生失弛缓症。这会导致患者食管渐渐麻痹并扩张,最终失去将食物挤入胃中的能力。然后食物会积聚在食管中,有时会发酵并冲回嘴里,尝起来可能有苦味。有人把这误认为是胃食管反流病(GERD)。但是,失弛缓症的反流食物来自食管,而胃食管反流病中的反流食物则来自胃。

失弛缓症尚无治愈方法。一旦食管麻痹,相关肌肉将再也不能正常工作。不过,通常可以通过内窥镜检查、微创治疗或手术来控制症状。

症状

失弛缓症症状通常会逐渐显现出来,并随着时间而恶化。体征和症状可能包括:

  • 无法吞咽(吞咽困难),感觉就像食物或饮料卡在喉咙中
  • 食物或唾液反流
  • 胃灼热
  • 打嗝
  • 时有时无的胸部疼痛
  • 夜间咳嗽
  • 感染性肺炎(因食物吸入肺部所致)
  • 体重减轻
  • 呕吐

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病因

失弛缓症的准确病因还不太清楚。研究人员怀疑可能是食管的神经细胞丧失导致的。关于病因众说纷纭,但可能是病毒感染或自免疫反应的问题。极其罕见的情况下,遗传病或感染可能导致失弛缓症。

在 Mayo Clinic 治疗

Oct. 21, 2020
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