Your spine is a column of bones (vertebrae) held together by muscles, tendons and ligaments and cushioned by shock-absorbing disks. A problem in any part of your spine can cause back pain. For some people, back pain is simply an annoyance. For others, it can be excruciating and disabling.
Most back pain — even severe back pain — goes away on its own within six weeks. Surgery usually isn't needed for back pain and generally is considered only if other treatments are not effective.
A common cause of back pain is injury to a muscle (strain) or ligament (sprain). Strains and sprains can occur for many reasons, including improper lifting, poor posture and lack of regular exercise. Being overweight might increase your risk of strains and sprains affecting your back.
Back pain can also result from arthritis and other age-related changes in your spine, from more-serious injuries, such as a vertebral fracture or ruptured disk, and from certain infections.
Most back pain gets better within a few weeks without treatment. Bed rest isn't recommended. Over-the-counter pain medications often help reduce back pain, as does the application of cold or heat to the painful area.
Schedule an office visit
Call your doctor if your back pain hasn't improved after a week of home treatment or if your back pain:
- Is constant or intense, especially at night or when you lie down
- Spreads down one or both legs, especially if the pain extends below your knee
- Causes weakness, numbness or tingling in one or both legs
- Occurs with unintended weight loss
- Occurs with swelling or redness on your back
Seek emergency medical care
Call 911 or emergency medical help or have someone drive you to the emergency room if your back pain:
- Occurs after a high-impact car crash, bad fall or sports injury
- Causes new bowel or bladder control problems
- Occurs with a fever
Aug. 03, 2018
- Back pain. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/back-pain. Accessed June 25, 2018.
- Low back pain fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-Sheets/Low-Back-Pain-Fact-Sheet. Accessed June 25, 2018.
- Low back pain. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases--conditions/low-back-pain/. Accessed June 25, 2018.
- Back pain symptoms. Arthritis Foundation. https://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/back-pain/symptoms.php. Accessed July 3, 2018.