Descripción general

El síndrome multisistémico inflamatorio pediátrico (MIS-C) es una afección grave que parece estar relacionada con la enfermedad del coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). En su mayoría, los niños infectados con el virus que causa la COVID-19 solo tienen una enfermedad leve. Pero en los niños que desarrollan el MIS-C, algunos órganos y tejidos se inflaman de gravedad, por ejemplo, el corazón, los pulmones, los vasos sanguíneos, los riñones, el sistema digestivo, el cerebro, la piel, o los ojos. Los signos y síntomas dependen de las áreas del cuerpo que se ven afectadas.

El MIS-Cse considera un síndrome — que es un grupo de signos y síntomas y no una enfermedad — porque no se sabe mucho sobre él, incluyendo qué lo causa y los factores de riesgo. Identificar y estudiar a más niños que tienen el MIS-C quizás finalmente ayude a encontrar una causa. Los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades de los Estados Unidos y los Institutos Nacionales de Salud trabajan con médicos e investigadores en todo el país para aprender más sobre los factores de riesgo para el MIS-C, comparten datos, y mejoran el diagnóstico y el tratamiento para el MIS-C.

Rara vez algunos adultos desarrollan signos y síntomas similares a los del MIS-C. Este nuevo síndrome, que es grave, se conoce como síndrome multisistémico inflamatorio en adultos (MIS-A), y se presenta en adultos que previamente se infectaron con el virus que causa la COVID-19 y muchos no supieron que lo tenían.MIS-A parece presentarse semanas después de la infección con la COVID-19, aunque algunos de estos adultos están infectados al mismo tiempo. Si se sospecha la presencia del MIS-A, una prueba diagnóstica o de anticuerpos para la COVID-19 puede ayudar a confirmar una infección presente o pasada con el virus, lo que ayuda con el diagnóstico para el MIS-A.

El MIS-C es raro, y muchos niños que lo tienen eventualmente mejoran con atención médica. Pero algunos niños empeoran rápidamente, al punto en que peligra su vida.

Todavía hay mucho que aprender sobre este síndrome inflamatorio emergente. Si tu hijo presenta algún signo o síntoma, busca asistencia de inmediato.

Síntomas

Signs and symptoms of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) include those below, though not all children have the same symptoms.

  • Fever that lasts 24 hours or longer
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Pain in the stomach
  • Skin rash
  • Feeling unusually tired
  • Fast heartbeat
  • Rapid breathing
  • Red eyes
  • Redness or swelling of the lips and tongue
  • Redness or swelling of the hands or feet
  • Headache, dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Enlarged lymph nodes

Emergency warning signs of MIS-C

  • Severe stomach pain
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Bluish lips or face
  • New confusion
  • Inability to wake up or stay awake

When to see a doctor

If your child has any of the emergency warning signs listed above — or is severely sick with other signs and symptoms — get care immediately. Take your child to the nearest emergency department or call 911 or your local emergency number.

If your child isn't severely ill but shows other signs or symptoms of MIS-C, contact your child's doctor right away for advice. Doctors may want to do tests — such as blood tests, or imaging tests of the chest, heart or abdomen — to check for areas of inflammation and other signs of MIS-C.

Causas

The exact cause of MIS-C is not known yet, but it appears to be an excessive immune response related to COVID-19. Many children with MIS-C have a positive antibody test result. This means they've had a recent infection with the COVID-19 virus. Some may have a current infection with the virus.

Factores de riesgo

In the U.S., more Black and Latino children have been diagnosed with MIS-C compared with children of other races and ethnic groups. Studies are needed to help determine why MIS-C affects these children more often than others. Factors may include, for example, differences in access to health information and services as well as the possibility of risks related to genetics.

Most children with MIS-C are between the ages of 3 and 12 years old, with an average age of 8 years old. Some cases have also occurred in older children and in babies.

Complicaciones

Many specialists consider MIS-C to be a complication of COVID-19. Without early diagnosis and appropriate management and treatment, MIS-C can lead to severe problems with vital organs, such as the heart, lungs or kidneys. In rare cases, MIS-C could result in permanent damage or even death.

Prevención

The best way to help prevent your child from getting MIS-C is to take action to avoid exposure to the COVID-19 virus and teach your child how to do the same. Follow the guidelines of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:

  • Keep hands clean. Wash hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water aren't available, use a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.
  • Avoid people who are sick. In particular, avoid people who are coughing, sneezing or showing other signs that indicate they might be sick and contagious.
  • Practice social distancing. This means that you and your child should stay at least 6 feet (2 meters) from other people when outside of your home.
  • Wear cloth face masks in public settings. When it's difficult to practice social distancing, both you and your child — if he or she is at least 2 years old — should wear face masks that cover the nose and mouth.
  • Avoid touching your nose, eyes and mouth. Encourage your child to follow your lead and avoid touching his or her face.
  • Cover your mouth with a tissue or your elbow when you sneeze or cough. You and your child should practice covering your mouths when you sneeze or cough to avoid spreading germs.
  • Clean and disinfect high-touch surfaces every day. This includes areas of your home such as doorknobs, light switches, remotes, handles, countertops, tables, chairs, desks, keyboards, faucets, sinks and toilets.
  • Wash clothing and other items as needed. Follow manufacturers' instructions, using the warmest appropriate water setting on your washing machine. Remember to include washable plush toys.
Nov. 14, 2020
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Síndrome multisistémico inflamatorio pediátrico (MIS-C) y COVID-19