During the physical exam, your doctor will press on the affected joint, checking for areas of swelling or tenderness. In some cases, you or your doctor will be able to feel a loose fragment inside your joint. Your doctor will also check other structures around the joint, such as the ligaments.

Your doctor will also ask you to move your joint in different directions to see whether the joint can move smoothly through its normal range of motion.

Imaging tests

Your doctor might order one or more of these tests:

  • X-rays. X-rays can show abnormalities in the joint's bones.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using radio waves and a strong magnetic field, an MRI can provide detailed images of both hard and soft tissues, including the bone and cartilage. If X-rays appear normal but you still have symptoms, your doctor might order an MRI.
  • Computerized tomography (CT) scan. This technique combines X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of internal structures. CT scans allow your doctor to see bone in high detail, which can help pinpoint the location of loose fragments within the joint.

More Information


Treatment of osteochondritis dissecans is intended to restore the normal functioning of the affected joint and relieve pain, as well as reduce the risk of osteoarthritis. No single treatment works for everybody. In children whose bones are still growing, the bone defect may heal with a period of rest and protection.


Initially, your doctor will likely recommend conservative measures, which might include:

  • Resting your joint. Avoid activities that stress your joint, such as jumping and running if your knee is affected. You might need to use crutches for a time, especially if pain causes you to limp. Your doctor might also suggest wearing a splint, cast or brace to immobilize the joint for a few weeks.
  • Physical therapy. Most often, this therapy includes stretching, range-of-motion exercises and strengthening exercises for the muscles that support the involved joint. Physical therapy is commonly recommended after surgery, as well.


If you have a loose fragment in your joint, if the affected area is still present after your bones have stopped growing, or if conservative treatments don't help after four to six months, you might need surgery. The type of surgery will depend on the size and stage of the injury and how mature your bones are.

Preparing for your appointment

You might first consult with your family doctor, who might refer you to a doctor who specializes in sports medicine or orthopedic surgery.

What you can do

  • Write down your symptoms and when they began.
  • List key medical information, including other conditions you have and the names of medications, vitamins or supplements you take.
  • Note recent accidents or injuries that might have damaged your back.
  • Take a family member or friend along, if possible. Someone who accompanies you can help you remember what your doctor tells you.
  • Write down questions to ask your doctor to make the most of your appointment time.

For osteochondritis dissecans, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What's the most likely cause of my joint pain?
  • Are there other possible causes?
  • Do I need diagnostic tests?
  • What treatment do you recommend?
  • If you're recommending medications, what are the possible side effects?
  • For how long will I need to take medication?
  • Am I a candidate for surgery? Why or why not?
  • Are there restrictions I need to follow?
  • What self-care measures should I take?
  • What can I do to prevent my symptoms from recurring?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, such as:

  • When did your symptoms begin?
  • Are your joints swollen? Do they lock or give out on you?
  • Does anything make your symptoms better or worse?
  • How limiting is your pain?
  • Have you injured that joint? If so, when?
  • Do you play sports? If so, which ones?
  • What treatments or self-care measures have you tried? Has anything helped?
Aug. 25, 2022
  1. Maruyama M, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum. Journal of Orthopaedic Science. 2018;23:213.
  2. Osteochondritis dissecans. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases--conditions/osteochondritis-dissecans. Accessed Aug. 6, 2018.
  3. Hergenroeder AC, et al. Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD): Clinical manifestations and diagnosis. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Aug. 2, 2018.
  4. Osteochondritis dissecans. Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/12703/osteochondritis-dissecans. Accessed Aug. 7, 2018.
  5. Hergenroeder AC, et al. Management of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Aug. 2, 2018.
  6. A guide to safety for young athletes. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/staying-healthy/a-guide-to-safety-for-young-athletes. Accessed Aug. 8, 2018.
  7. Laskowski ER (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Aug. 8, 2018.


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