Foot drop is usually diagnosed during a physical exam. Your doctor will watch you walk and check your leg muscles for weakness. He or she may also check for numbness on your shin and on the top of your foot and toes.
Foot drop is sometimes caused by an overgrowth of bone in the spinal canal or by a tumor or cyst pressing on the nerve in the knee or spine. Imaging tests can help pinpoint these types of problems.
- X-rays. Plain X-rays use a low level of radiation to visualize a soft tissue mass or a bone lesion that might be causing your symptoms.
- Ultrasound. This technology, which uses sound waves to create images of internal structures, can check for cysts or tumors on the nerve or show swelling on the nerve from compression.
- CT scan. This combines X-ray images taken from many different angles to form cross-sectional views of structures within the body.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This test uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field to create detailed images. MRI is particularly useful in visualizing soft tissue lesions that may be compressing a nerve.
Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies measure electrical activity in the muscles and nerves. These tests can be uncomfortable, but they're useful in determining the location of the damage along the affected nerve.
The most common type of foot drop is caused by injury to the peroneal nerve, which controls the muscles that lift your foot. Foot drop can be temporary or permanent. A brace can help hold your foot in a more normal position.
Treatment for foot drop depends on the cause. If the cause is successfully treated, foot drop might improve or even disappear. If the cause can't be treated, foot drop can be permanent.
Treatment for foot drop might include:
- Braces or splints. A brace on your ankle and foot or splint that fits into your shoe can help hold your foot in a normal position.
- Physical therapy. Exercises that strengthen your leg muscles and help you maintain the range of motion in your knee and ankle might improve gait problems associated with foot drop. Stretching exercises are particularly important to prevent the stiffness in the heel.
- Nerve stimulation. Sometimes stimulating the nerve that lifts the foot improves foot drop.
- Surgery. Depending upon the cause, and if your foot drop is relatively new, nerve surgery might be helpful. If foot drop is long-standing, your doctor might suggest surgery that fuses ankle or foot bones or a procedure that transfers a working tendon and attached muscle to a different part of the foot.
Lifestyle and home remedies
Because foot drop can increase your risk of tripping and falling, consider taking these precautions around your house:
- Keep all floors clear of clutter.
- Avoid the use of throw rugs.
- Move electrical cords away from walkways.
- Make sure rooms and stairways are well-lit.
- Place fluorescent tape on the top and bottom steps of stairways.
Preparing for your appointment
You're likely to start by seeing your family doctor. Depending on the suspected cause of foot drop, you may be referred to a doctor who specializes in brain and nerve disorders (neurologist).
Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment.
What you can do
Make a list of:
- Your symptoms, including ones that seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment, and when they began
- Key personal information, including major stresses or recent life changes
- All medications, vitamins or supplements you take, including doses
- Questions to ask your doctor
For foot drop, questions to ask your doctor include:
- What's causing my symptoms?
- What tests do I need?
- Is my condition likely temporary or chronic?
- What treatment do you recommend?
- Do you have brochures or other printed material I can have?
Don't hesitate to ask other questions.
What to expect from your doctor
Your doctor is likely to ask questions, such as:
- Are your symptoms present all the time, or do they come and go?
- Does anything seem to make your symptoms better?
- Does anything seem to make your symptoms worse?
- Do you notice weakness in your legs?
- Does your foot slap the floor when you walk?
- Do you have numbness or tingling in your foot or leg?
- Do you have pain? If so what is it like and where is it located?
- Do you have a history of diabetes?
- Do you have other muscle weakness?
Dec. 14, 2017
- Foot drop. BMJ. 2015;350:h1736.
- Foot drop information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Foot-Drop-Information-Page. Accessed Sept. 13, 2017.
- Rutkove SB. Overview of lower extremity peripheral nerve syndromes. https//www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Sept. 13, 2017.
- Foot drop. GBS/CIDP Foundation International. https://www.gbs-cidp.org/ecomm/foot-drop/. Accessed Sept. 13, 2017.
- Foot drop treatment (tendon transfer). American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. http://www.aofas.org/footcaremd/treatments/Pages/Foot-Drop-Treatment-(Tendon-Transfer).aspx. Accessed Sept. 13, 2017.