Ampullary (AM-poo-la-ree) cancer is a rare cancer that forms in an area of your digestive system called the ampulla of Vater. The ampulla of Vater is located where your bile duct and pancreatic duct join and empty into your small intestine.
Ampullary cancer forms near many other parts of the digestive system, such as the liver, pancreas and small intestine. When ampullary cancer grows, it may affect these other organs.
Ampullary cancer treatment often involves extensive surgery to remove the cancer and a large margin of healthy tissue.
Ampullary cancer care at Mayo Clinic
Signs and symptoms of ampullary cancer may include:
- Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
- Clay-colored stools
- Abdominal pain
- Bleeding from the rectum
- Weight loss
When to see a doctor
Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any persistent signs or symptoms that worry you.
It's not clear what causes ampullary cancer.
In general, cancer starts when cells develop changes (mutations) in their DNA. A cell's DNA contains the instructions that tell the cell what to do. The changes tell the cell to begin multiplying uncontrollably and to continue living when normal cells would die. The accumulating cells form a tumor that can invade and destroy normal body tissue.
Factors that can increase the risk of ampullary cancer include:
- Your age. Ampullary cancer is more common in adults older than 70.
- Being male. Males are slightly more likely to develop ampullary cancer than are females.
- Inherited syndromes that increase cancer risk. Some gene mutations passed through generations of your family can increase your risk of ampullary cancer significantly. Only a small percentage of ampullary cancers are linked to inherited genes. The most common inherited syndromes that increase ampullary cancer risk are familial adenomatous polyposis and Lynch syndrome, which is also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.