Reversible causes of memory loss
Many medical problems can cause memory loss or other dementia-like symptoms. Most of these conditions can be successfully treated, and your doctor can screen you for conditions that cause reversible memory impairment.
Possible causes of reversible memory loss include:
- Medications. A single medication or a certain combination of medications may result in forgetfulness or confusion.
- Minor head trauma or injury. A head injury from a fall or accident — even an injury that doesn't result in a loss of consciousness — may cause memory problems.
- Depression or other mental health disorders. Stress, anxiety or depression can cause forgetfulness, confusion, difficulty concentrating and other problems that disrupt daily activities.
- Alcoholism. Chronic alcoholism can seriously impair mental abilities. Alcohol can also cause memory loss by interacting with medications.
- Vitamin B-12 deficiency. Vitamin B-12 helps maintain healthy nerve cells and red blood cells. A vitamin B-12 deficiency — common in older adults — can cause memory problems.
- Hypothyroidism. An underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) slows the processing of nutrients to create energy for cells (metabolism). Hypothyroidism can result in forgetfulness and other thinking problems.
- Tumors. A tumor in the brain may cause memory problems or other dementia-like symptoms.
When to see your doctor
If you're concerned about memory loss, see your doctor. He or she can conduct tests to judge the degree of memory impairment and diagnose the cause.
Your doctor is likely to have a number of questions for you, and you will benefit by having a family member or friend along to answer some questions based on his or her observations. Questions may include:
- How long have you been experiencing memory problems?
- What medications — including prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs and dietary supplements — do you take regularly? What is the dosage of each?
- Have you recently started taking a new drug?
- What tasks do you find too difficult to perform or finish?
- What have you done to cope with memory problems? Have these things helped you?
- Do you drink alcohol? How much do you drink daily?
- Have you recently been in an accident, fallen or injured your head?
- Have you recently been sick?
- Have you recently felt sad, depressed or anxious?
- Have you recently experienced a major loss, change or stressful event in your life?
- What is your daily routine? How has your routine changed recently?
In addition to a general physical exam, your doctor will likely conduct relatively brief question-and-answer tests to judge your memory and other thinking skills. He or she may also order blood tests and brain-imaging tests that can help identify reversible causes of memory problems and dementia-like symptoms.
You may also be referred to a specialist in diagnosing dementia or memory disorders, such as a neurologist, psychiatrist, psychologist or geriatrician.
The importance of a diagnosis
Coming to terms with memory loss and the possible onset of dementia can be difficult. A person may try to hide memory problems, and family members or friends may compensate for a person's loss of memory — sometimes without being aware of how much they've adapted to the impairment.
Getting a prompt diagnosis is important, even if it's a challenging step. Identifying a reversible cause of memory impairment enables you to get appropriate treatment. Also, an early diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease or a related disorder is beneficial for a number of reasons:
- Beginning treatments to manage symptoms
- Educating yourself, family and friends about the disease
- Determining future care preferences
- Identifying care facilities or at-home care options
- Settling financial or legal matters
Your doctor can help you identify appropriate community resources and organizations, such as the Alzheimer's Association, to help you cope with memory loss and other dementia symptoms.
June 05, 2014
- Forgetfulness: Knowing when to ask for help. National Institute on Aging. http://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/forgetfulness. Accessed April 16, 2014.
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- Longo DL, et al. Harrison's Online. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=4. Accessed April 8, 2014.
- Alzheimer's disease fact sheet. National Institute on Aging. http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/publication/alzheimers-disease-fact-sheet. Accessed April 8, 2014.
- Caring for a person with Alzheimer's disease. National Institute on Aging. http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/publication/caring-person-alzheimers-disease/about-guide. Accessed April 8, 2014.