Water: How much should you drink every day?
Water is essential to good health, yet needs vary by individual. These guidelines can help ensure you drink enough fluids.
By Mayo Clinic Staff
How much water should you drink each day? It's a simple question with no easy answers. Studies have produced varying recommendations over the years, but in truth, your water needs depend on many factors, including your health, how active you are and where you live.
Although no single formula fits everyone, knowing more about your body's need for fluids will help you estimate how much water to drink each day.
Health benefits of water
Water is your body's principal chemical component and makes up about 60 percent of your body weight. Every system in your body depends on water. For example, water flushes toxins out of vital organs, carries nutrients to your cells and provides a moist environment for ear, nose and throat tissues.
Lack of water can lead to dehydration, a condition that occurs when you don't have enough water in your body to carry out normal functions. Even mild dehydration can drain your energy and make you tired.
How much water do you need?
Every day you lose water through your breath, perspiration, urine and bowel movements. For your body to function properly, you must replenish its water supply by consuming beverages and foods that contain water.
So how much fluid does the average, healthy adult living in a temperate climate need? The Institute of Medicine determined that an adequate intake (AI) for men is roughly 3 liters (about 13 cups) of total beverages a day. The AI for women is 2.2 liters (about 9 cups) of total beverages a day.
What about the advice to drink eight glasses a day?
Everyone has heard the advice, "Drink eight 8-ounce glasses of water a day." That's about 1.9 liters, which isn't that different from the Institute of Medicine recommendations. Although the "8 by 8" rule isn't supported by hard evidence, it remains popular because it's easy to remember. Just keep in mind that the rule should be reframed as: "Drink at least eight 8-ounce glasses of fluid a day," because all fluids count toward the daily total.
Oct. 12, 2011
See more In-depth
- Sawka M, et al. Human water needs. Nutrition Reviews 2005;63:S30.
- Valtzin H. "Drink at least eight glasses of water a day." Really? Is there scientific evidence for 8 x 8? American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 2002;283:R993.
- Rose BD, et al. Maintenance and replacement fluid therapy in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed March 2, 2010.
- Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride and sulfate. Institute of Medicine. http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/DRI//DRI_Water/73-185.pdf. Accessed March 2, 2010.
- Exercise and fluid replacement. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2007;39:377.
- Campbell SM. Hydration needs throughout the lifespan. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007;26:5858.
- Nutrition and athletic performance: Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2009;109:509.
- Park S, et al. Pathophysiology and management of calcium stones. Urology Clinics of North America. 2007;34:323.
- Manz F. Hydration and disease. Journal of the American College of Nutritionists. 2007;26(suppl):535S.
- Zeratsky KA (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Oct. 3, 2011.