Whiplash typically occurs when a person's head is forcefully and quickly thrown backward and then forward. This motion can injure bones in the spine, disks between the bones, ligaments, muscles, nerves and other tissues of the neck.
This type of injury may result from:
Jan. 20, 2015
- Auto accidents. Rear-end collisions are the most common cause of whiplash.
- Physical abuse or assault. Whiplash may also result from incidents of being punched or shaken. Whiplash is one of the injuries sustained in shaken baby syndrome.
- Contact sports. Football tackles and other sports-related collisions can sometimes cause whiplash injuries.
- Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2015. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Oct. 16, 2014.
- Frontera WR, et al. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2008. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Oct. 21, 2014.
- NINDS whiplash information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/whiplash/whiplash.htm. Accessed Oct. 18, 2014.
- Bannister G, et al. Whiplash injury. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 2009;91:845.
- Isaac Z, et al. Evaluation of the patient with neck pain and cervical spine disorders. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Oct. 14, 2014.
- MacDermid JC, et al. Measurement properties of the neck disability index: A systematic review. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 2009;39:400.
- Yadla S, et al. Whiplash: Diagnosis, treatment, and associated injuries. Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine. 2008;1:65.
- South-Paul JE, et al. Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Family Medicine. 3rd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2011. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/book.aspx?bookId=377. Accessed Oct. 22, 2014.
- Anderson BC, et al. Treatment of neck pain. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Oct. 14. 2014.
- Shekelle P, et al. Spinal manipulation in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain. http://uptodate.com/home. Accessed Oct. 21, 2014.
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